FIGURE 1-21 Plans of postdoctoral scholars to stay in the United States, 2004.

SOURCE: Data are final results from 2004 Sigma Xi National Postdoctoral Survey. The question about settlement preference was asked of one-eighth of respondents, who were asked to score their interest on a scale of 0 = not at all, 1 = somewhat interested, and 2 = very interested.

ate students would raise university patent grants by 6.0 percent and nonuniversity patent grants by 4.0 percent. Taken in the aggregate, enrollments of US graduate students had no detectable effect in their model.52 The authors concluded that bureaucratic hurdles in obtaining student visas may impede innovation if they decrease the inflow of international graduate students.53

An Impact Through “Exceptional” Contributions

There is evidence that the foreign-born and foreign-educated, at least in the recent past, have made a disproportionate number of “exceptional”


Chelleraj et al. 2004. Ibid, pp. 27-28. The authors state, “Relatively open access to international students has allowed US universities to accept the brightest graduate students in science and engineering from all over the world. In turn, international graduate students contribute to innovation and patenting in S&E while domestic students do not in the aggregate. Presumably this is because international graduate students are more concentrated in such fields as S&E than are domestic students. Further because of work restrictions for international students, domestic students have greater opportunities to be employed in non-research activities in both university and non-university settings.”


Chelleraj et al. 2004. Ibid, p. 2.

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