FIGURE 2-6 Student and exchange-visitor trips per year, 1997-2003.

SOURCE: Data on visa issuances from US Department of State. Data on visa admissions are collected at ports of entry and are from Immigration and Customs Enforcement division, Department of Homeland Security. Note that DHS includes mainland China and Taiwan in its admissions reports for China. Department of State issuance numbers for China and Taiwan have been combined for comparability.

NOTES: Student (F) visas are issued for student-college/university and student-secondary (high-school only). Exchange visitor (J) visas are issued for private sector (foreign physician, au pair, camp counselor, summer work/travel, and trainee) and government program (student-college/university, student-secondary, professor, research scholar, short-term scholar, specialist, teacher, government visitor, and international visitor).

Reciprocity schedules dictate validity period of visa and number of times it may be used to enter United States. As of December 2004, reciprocity schedules were as follows: China: F1 and J1 6 months, two uses; India and Germany: F1and J1 60 months, multiple uses; Russia: F1 12 months, multiple uses; J1 36 months, multiple uses.

Deemed Exports

Export control laws have been a mechanism to control the transfer of goods having military applications through the International Traffic in Arms Regulations and have also become a means to limit the export of goods or technologies having commercial value through Export Adminis-



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