consequences were not as great as anticipated can probably be attributed to efforts by the US government to make the nonimmigrant-visa application process work effectively and to measures taken by universities to make the graduate application process responsive to international-student needs.

Student flows respond quickly to alterations in immigration policies. However, the inflow of talented graduate students and postdoctoral scholars is unlikely to be severely affected as long as the world sees the United States as the most desirable destination for S&E education, training, and technology-based employment. If that perception shifts, and if international students find equally attractive educational and professional opportunities in other countries, including their own, the difficulty of visiting the United States could gain decisive importance. Chapter 3 discusses the possibility that such a long-term shift already is occurring.


Origin (Working Paper). Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education.) and postdoctoral scholars (see: Jurgen Enders and Alexis-Michel Mugabushaka. 2004. Wissenshaft und Karriere: Ehrfahrungen und Werdegange ehemahleiger Stipendiaten der DFG. Bonn: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft).

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