. "3 The Globalization of Science and Engineering." Policy Implications of International Graduate Students and Postdoctoral Scholars in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2005.
The following HTML text is provided to enhance online
readability. Many aspects of typography translate only awkwardly to HTML.
Please use the page image
as the authoritative form to ensure accuracy.
Policy Implications of International Graduate Students and Postdoctoral Scholars in the United States
FIGURE 3-2 International authorship trends.
SOURCE: National Science Board. 2004. Science and Engineering Indicators 2004 (NSB 04-1). Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation, Table 5-30. Note that internationally co-authored articles were counted more than once, for each country represented on the author list.
Union (EU) 15 countries have published more papers than the United States, and the gap in citations has been closing steadily.10 Since 1993, the EU has matched the United States in citations in the physical sciences, engineering, and mathematics but still lags in the life sciences.11 The reason for this development remains unknown, but it is more likely due to an increase in the quality and quantity of research abroad than to a decrease in the quantity of US publications.
International collaboration, as assessed by the number of articles with institutional authors from more than one country, more than doubled from 1988 to 2001, leading to an increase from 8 percent to 18 percent of all S&E articles. Even though US institutions participate in most of those collaborations, the US share (but not number) of international papers has fallen since the late 1980s. Collaborative activities between other countries