FIGURE 3-3 Expenditure for research and development as percentage of gross national product, 1991–2001.

SOURCE: OECD. 2002. Main Science and Technology Indicators. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

provide advanced S&E training, 7,300 doctoral degrees were awarded in China in 2000, a 50-fold increase since 1986.34 An estimated 58 percent of all degrees awarded in 2002 were in engineering and the physical sciences.35

China is also beginning to attract substantial numbers of international students to its own universities.36 For example, at universities in Shanghai,


Hicks. 2004. Ibid.


“President’s science council says future health of technology sector is in jeopardy; decline of manufacturing could impact innovation ‘ecosystem’.” Manufacturing & Technology News, 10(18), October 3, 2003. Available at


Urmi A. Goswani. 2005. “India fails to mature into learning hub.” Economic Times (January 13). Available at,prtpage-1.cms; and Cui Ning. 2004. “Record number of scholars headed abroad.” China Daily (December 22). Ning reports that from 1978 to 2003, China received a total of 620,000 international students. In 2003, China received 78,000 students from 175 countries or regions, who studied primarily liberal arts, medical science, engineering, science, and agronomy. Most students come from the Republic of Korea, Japan, the United States, Viet Nam, and Indonesia. Available at

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