1-14

 

Primary Mechanisms of Support for Doctoral Candidates, 1982-2002,

 

48

1-15

 

Primary Mechanisms of Support for Postdoctoral Scholars, 1983-2002,

 

50

1-16

 

Mechanisms of Support for Postdoctoral Scholars by Field, 1998-2002,

 

50

1-17

 

High-Skill Workers in US S&E Labor Force,

 

52

1-18

 

US Census Estimates of Foreign-Born in US S&E Occupations by Field, 2000,

 

53

1-19

 

Plans to Stay in United States after Earning Doctorate, by Field of Study,

 

55

1-20

 

Changes in US Citizenship among US-Awarded Doctorates in S&E,

 

57

1-21

 

Plans of Postdoctoral Scholars to Stay in the United States, 2004,

 

59

1-22

 

Exceptional Contributions: US Nobel Laureates’ Place of Birth and Country of Graduate Education,

 

61

2-1

 

Schedule of Activities for F and J Non-Immigrant Visa (NIV) Applicants,

 

73

2-2

 

Top 11 Student- and Scholar-Sending Countries, FY 2003,

 

74

2-3

 

Visa Issuance Volumes by Region for F and J Classes, 1966-2003,

 

75

2-4

 

Visa Workloads and Refusals: Student and Exchange Visitors,

 

76

2-5

 

Visa Mantis Security Advisory Opinion (SAO) Workload, FY 2004,

 

80

2-6

 

Student and Exchange-Visitor Trips Per Year, 1997-2003,

 

82

2-7

 

Re-entry Issues for Nonresident Postdoctoral Scholars,

 

83

3-1

 

S&E Doctorate Production by Country, 1975-2001,

 

89

3-2

 

International Authorship Trends, 1988-2001,

 

91

3-3

 

Expenditure for Research and Development as a Percentage of Gross National Product, 1991-2001,

 

97

3-4

 

Percent Distribution of US R&D Funding, by Sector,

 

109

3-5

 

Federal Funding for Academic Research, 1974-2004,

 

110

3-6

 

Enrollment and State Tax Appropriations per Full Time Equivalent Student (FTE) in Constant 2003 Dollars,

 

111

4-1

 

Outcomes Model,

 

125

C-1

 

Opinions of the United States,

 

156

C-2

 

Opinions of the United States of People Who Have and Have Not Visited the United States,

 

156



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