TABLE B.1 Example Metrics for Case Study on Solar Forcing of Climate

Type

Example Metrics

Process

• Is there a plan for continuous measurement of other climate variables related to solar irradiance to enable discernment and quantification of the physical, chemical, and biological links between solar irradiance changes and climate?

• Is a plan for periodic five-year review of solar measurements available that includes the following:

—Are the measurements being made with sufficient precision and accuracy?

—Are the measurement plans robust with respect to the requirements for continuity and/or calibration?

Input

• Are the instruments and platforms required for deployment of a TSI measurement system available?

• Are the measurements to be made by these instruments relatable to those made using previous technologies?

• Yearly reviews of the following:

—Sufficient commitment of resources to allow the planned program to be carried out

—Sufficient resources being devoted to the development of climate models to utilize the solar measurements properly

• Does the best scientific evidence indicate that the resources being devoted to the solar radiation measurements are appropriate, given our need to understand the climate record and predict future climate changes?

Output

• Publication of a peer-reviewed, multiyear record of TSI that is relatable to existing records

• Documented, published records of how solar variability has contributed directly and indirectly to past climate change

• Quantitative links between measures of solar activity (e.g., sunspot number, solar wind) and solar irradiance at the top of the Earth’s atmosphere

Outcome

• Improved ability to forecast non-irradiance-related effects of solar activity

• Forecasts of future solar variability and predictions of its climate effect are available for comparison with other climate drivers to determine the nature of climate change

• Recognition of direct and indirect mechanisms by which solar variations can influence climate

Impact

• Public understanding of the importance of solar variation in climate change relative to other radiative forcing (e.g., greenhouse gases) is improved



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