TABLE 6.1 Examples of the Way Metrics Specific to Individual Case Studies Were Worded Generically

Case Study Wording

Generic Wording

Output Metrics

• Development of a suite of new measurement techniques that are capable of detecting carbon allocation patterns on time scales of (1) hours, (2) days to weeks, and (3) a growing season in response to external variables and photosynthetic rates of plants in control versus experimentally manipulated systems

• The program results in peer-reviewed and broadly accessible results, such as (1) data and information, (2) new and applicable measurement techniques, (3) scenarios and decision support tools, and (4) well-described and demonstrated relationships that improve our understanding of processes or enable forecasting and prediction

• Production of a facility that (1) can be put into the field for years at a time and (2) can maintain atmospheric CO2 levels at a specific set point (e.g., 50 ppm [parts per million] above ambient levels), with a precision (averaged over 1 hour) of 5 ppm

• Sustainable information systems that make water resource data and information readily available to research and applications users

• Adequate community and/or infrastructure to support the program has been developed

Outcome Metrics

• Are the aerosol measurements together with other aerosol research resulting in better understanding of the uncertainties in climate projections due to direct and indirect aerosol processes?

• Are the research results leading to lower uncertainties in the historical contributions to sea-level rise and thence to better projections of future sea-level rise?

• The program has led to the identification of uncertainties, increased understanding of uncertainties, or reduced uncertainties

• Consistent and reliable projections of vegetation change and climate-vegetation interactions and feedbacks, with well-described sources of error and limitation

• A peer reviewed, published, broadly accepted conclusion about our ability to simulate the twentieth century climate and attribute these variations to specific causes

• The program has yielded improved understanding, such as (1) quantification of important phenomena or processes, (2) more consistent and reliable predictions or forecasts, (3) increased confidence in our ability to simulate and predict climate change and variability, and (4) peer-reviewed, published, broadly accepted conclusions about key issues or relationships

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