C
Sea Power 21 Capability Areas: Assessment of Dependence on Space Mission Areas



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Navy’s Needs in Space for Providing Future Capabilities C Sea Power 21 Capability Areas: Assessment of Dependence on Space Mission Areas

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Navy’s Needs in Space for Providing Future Capabilities TABLE C.1 Assessment of Current Sea Strike Capability Dependency on the Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR), Meteorology and Oceanography (METOC), and Position, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) Space Mission Areas Capability Projected ISR Dependency Current Space Support Lead Agency Comments/ Limitations Projected METOC Dependency Current Space Support Strike Critical Useful   Target identification, location, and tracking; decoy discrimination     Conduct strike operations Critical Useful     Critical Effective —Engage fixed land targets Critical Effective NRO, USAF Persistency, area coverage     —Engage moving targets Critical Limited USAF GMTI required; area coverage, ocean coverage, low-latency communications     Conduct special operations Critical Useful   —Provide precision targeting Critical Useful NRO, USAF Persistency, FIA improvements late, SBR/GMTI     —Conduct direct action Critical Useful NRO Persistency Critical Useful

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Navy’s Needs in Space for Providing Future Capabilities Lead Agency Comments/ Limitations Space PNT Dependency Current Space Support Lead Agency Comments/ Limitations   Carrier operations, weather prediction, mission planning Critical Effective USAF, NAVAIR, USNO Weapons system integration, limited resistance to interference, time synchronization NOAA Inconsistent reliability, availability and latency of data Critical Effective     Critical Effective Critical Limited Critical Effective Critical Effective USN, NOAA, Commercial, NTM Tactical decision aids; littoral characterization. Latency, tasking, spectral resolution, spatial resolution, only passive systems via NOAA executive agency, no transition path from advanced technology development to operations. Critical Effective

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Navy’s Needs in Space for Providing Future Capabilities Capability Projected ISR Dependency Current Space Support Lead Agency Comments/ Limitations Projected METOC Dependency Current Space Support Conduct offensive information operations Limited Limited   —Jam potential threats Limited Limited   Better done from air or ground   —Conduct network attack Limited Limited   Better done from air or ground Provide aircraft survivability Critical Useful NRO Tactical ELINT, and operational ELINT improvements Naval Fire Support Limited Limited     Provide preparation fires Limited Limited   Contributory Useful Provide close supporting fires Limited Limited Provide precision supporting fires Limited Limited Provide volume fires Limited Limited Ship to Objective Maneuver Critical Useful

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Navy’s Needs in Space for Providing Future Capabilities Lead Agency Comments/ Limitations Space PNT Dependency Current Space Support Lead Agency Comments/ Limitations   Critical Effective   Limited Effective Critical Effective Critical Effective Critical Effective USAF, SPAWAR, USNO Integrated GPS, time synchronization NOAA, USAF International ownership, reliability, availability, and latency Limited Effective     Limited Effective Critical Effective Limited Effective Critical Effective USAF, SPAWAR, USNO Limited resistance to interference

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Navy’s Needs in Space for Providing Future Capabilities Capability Projected ISR Dependency Current Space Support Lead Agency Comments/ Limitations Projected METOC Dependency Current Space Support Project forces, reposition forces Critical Useful USAF, NRO Persistence, area coverage, ocean coverage Critical Useful Assault centers of gravity and critical vulnerabilities Critical Useful USAF, NRO Persistence, area coverage, ocean coverage Limited   Conduct concurrent follow-on missions Critical Useful USAF, NRO Persistence, area coverage, ocean coverage, battle damage assessment Critical Useful Strategic Deterrence Critical Limited   Conduct nuclear strike Critical Useful USAF, NRO Targeting, reconnaissance, area coverage  

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Navy’s Needs in Space for Providing Future Capabilities Lead Agency Comments/ Limitations Space PNT Dependency Current Space Support Lead Agency Comments/ Limitations USN, NOAA, commercial, NTM Trafficability, littoral needs. Latency, tasking, spectral resolution, spatial resolution, only passive systems via NOAA executive agency, no transition path from advanced technology development to operations. Critical Effective     Critical Effective Commercial, NTM Battle damage assessment, trafficability, nowcasting. Latency, tasking, spectral resolution, spatial resolution, no transition path from advanced technology development to operations. No hyperspectral or SBR support. Critical Effective   Critical Effective USAF, USN SSPO, USNO Antijam communications, timing synchronization   Critical Effective  

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Navy’s Needs in Space for Providing Future Capabilities Capability Projected ISR Dependency Current Space Support Lead Agency Comments/ Limitations Projected METOC Dependency Current Space Support Provide assured survivability Critical Limited USAF, NRO Theater AMTI, BMD, terrorist   NOTES: Acronyms are listed in Appendix G. “Critical” indicates a Sea Power 21 capability strongly dependent on the indicated space mission area. “Contributory” indicates a Sea Power 21 capability whose performance can be enhanced by access to the indicated space mission area. “Effective” indicates that Navy support to link the space and Sea Power 21 capabilities is at an appropriate level to meet Navy needs. “Useful” indicates that Navy support to link the space and Sea Power 21 capabilities is helping support Navy needs, but could see improvement. “Limited” indicates little or no connection between capability areas or little Navy interaction to link the capability areas.

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Navy’s Needs in Space for Providing Future Capabilities Lead Agency Comments/ Limitations Space PNT Dependency Current Space Support Lead Agency Comments/ Limitations   Critical Limited   Limited HEMP protection and resistance to interference

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Navy’s Needs in Space for Providing Future Capabilities TABLE C.2 Assessment of Current Sea Shield Capability Dependency on the Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR), Meteorology and Oceanography (METOC), and Position, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) Space Mission Areas Capability Potential ISR Dependency Current Space Support Executive Agency Comments/ Limitations Potential METOC Dependency Current Space Support Force Protection Contributory Limited   Protect against SOF and terrorist threats Critical Useful NRO, USAF Persistence, GMTI, AMTI, low cross-section targets, area coverage Contributory Limited Mitigate effects of CBRNE Limited Limited NRO Hyperspectral   Surface Warfare Critical Useful   Neutralize near-horizon surface threats Contributory Useful NRO, USAF ELINT, IMINT: FIA, SBR/GMTI, no AMTI Limited Limited Neutralize OTH surface threats Critical Useful NRO, USAF ELINT, IMINT: FIA, SBR/GMTI, no AMTI Limited Limited Undersea Warfare Contributory Limited   Provide self-defense against subsurface threats Contributory Limited NRO, USAF Persistence, ocean coverage, area coverage  

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Navy’s Needs in Space for Providing Future Capabilities Executive Agency Comments/ Limitations Space PNT Dependency Current Space Support Executive Agency Comments/ Limitations     Limited Effective USAF, USNO, NAVSEA Limited resistance to interference USN, USAF, NTM Wave height, currents, surface temperature; ELINT, spatial resolution Limited Effective     Limited Limited     Critical Effective USAF, USNO, NAVAIR   NOAA Atmospheric ducting, mission can be accomplished using onboard sensors Limited Effective   NOAA Atmospheric ducting Critical Effective   Critical Effective USAF, USNO, SYSCOMs Persistence Limited Limited  

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Navy’s Needs in Space for Providing Future Capabilities Executive Agency Comments/ Limitations Space PNT Dependency Current Space Support Executive Agency Comments/ Limitations NTM, commercial Currents, surf, sediment, turbidity, bioluminescence, bathymetry; spatial and temporal resolution, spectral range/resolution Critical Limited   USN, USAF, NOAA Wave height, currents, surface temperature; spatial resolution Limited Limited NTM, commercial, NTM Wave height, currents, surface temperature; water-penetrating spectral sensors, active microwave; no passive or active hyperspectral, no SBR, poor littoral temporal and spatial resolution Critical Limited   Critical Limited USAF, MDA, USNO Limited resistance to interference, LPI and LPD communications, time synchronization Critical Limited   Critical Limited

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Navy’s Needs in Space for Providing Future Capabilities Capability Potential ISR Dependency Current Space Support Executive Agency Comments/ Limitations Potential METOC Dependency Current Space Support Provide overland air and missile defense Critical Limited USAF SBIRS-H, no planned AMTI   Maintain sea-based NRO missile defense Critical Limited USAF SBIRS-H, no planned AMTI NOTES: Acronyms are listed in Appendix G. “Critical” indicates a Sea Power 21 capability strongly dependent on the indicated space mission area. “Contributory” indicates a Sea Power 21 capability whose performance can be enhanced by access to the indicated space mission area. “Effective” indicates that Navy support to link the space and Sea Power 21 capabilities is at an appropriate level to meet Navy needs. “Useful” indicates that Navy support to link the space and Sea Power 21 capabilities is helping support Navy needs, but could see improvement. “Limited” indicates little or no connection between capability areas or little Navy interaction to link the capability areas.

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Navy’s Needs in Space for Providing Future Capabilities Executive Agency Comments/ Limitations Space PNT Dependency Current Space Support Executive Agency Comments/ Limitations   Critical Limited   Critical Limited

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Navy’s Needs in Space for Providing Future Capabilities TABLE C.3 Assessment of Current Sea Basing Capability Dependency on the Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR), Meteorology and Oceanography (METOC), and Position, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) Space Mission Areas Capability Potential ISR Dependency Current Space Support Executive Agency Comments/ Limitations Potential METOC Dependency Current Space Support Deploy and Employ Contributory Useful   Close the force and maintain mobility Contributory Useful NRO, USAF Persistence, area coverage, ocean coverage   Provide at-sea arrival and assembly Contributory Useful NRO, USAF Persistence, area coverage, ocean coverage Critical Effective Allow selective offload Limited Limited   Reconstitute and regenerate at sea Limited Limited Provide Integrated Joint Logistics Limited Limited Provide sustainment for operations at sea Limited Limited Provide sustainment for operations ashore Limited Limited Provide focused logistics Limited Limited

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Navy’s Needs in Space for Providing Future Capabilities Lead Agency Comments/ Limitations Space PNT Dependency Current Space Support Lead Agency Comments/ Limitations   Limited Effective USAF Global coverage, persistence Limited Effective   NOAA, USAF Ocean routing; existing infrastructure is working; space and time resolution gradually improving. Limited Effective     Critical Effective   Limited Effective USAF, DLA Global coverage, persistence Limited Effective   Limited Effective Limited Effective

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Navy’s Needs in Space for Providing Future Capabilities Capability Potential ISR Dependency Current Space Support Executive Agency Comments/ Limitations Potential METOC Dependency Current Space Support Provide shipboard and mobile maintenance Limited Limited   Provide force medical services Limited Limited Provide advanced base support Limited Limited Pre-position Joint Assets Afloat Limited Limited     Critical Effective Integrate and support joint personnel and equipment Limited Limited   Provide afloat command and control exploitation physical infrastructure Contributory Useful NRO, USN Space ISR processing, fusion,     Provide AFSB capability for joint operations Limited Limited   NOTES: Acronyms are listed in Appendix G. “Critical” indicates a Sea Power 21 capability strongly dependent on the indicated space mission area. “Contributory” indicates a Sea Power 21 capability whose performance can be enhanced by access to the indicated space mission area. “Effective” indicates that Navy support to link the space and Sea Power 21 capabilities is at an appropriate level to meet Navy needs. “Useful” indicates that Navy support to link the space and Sea Power 21 capabilities is helping support Navy needs, but could see improvement. “Limited” indicates little or no connection between capability areas or little Navy interaction to link the capability areas.

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Navy’s Needs in Space for Providing Future Capabilities Lead Agency Comments/ Limitations Space PNT Dependency Current Space Support Lead Agency Comments/ Limitations   Limited Effective   Limited Effective Limited Effective NOAA, USAF Ocean routing; existing infrastructure is working; space and time resolution gradually improving. Critical Effective USAF Global GPS coverage needed, limited signal resistance to interference   Limited Effective   Critical Effective Critical Effective

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Navy’s Needs in Space for Providing Future Capabilities TABLE C.4 Assessment of Current FORCEnet Capability Dependency on the Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) and Position, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) Space Mission Areas Capability Potential ISR Dependency Current Space Support Lead Agency Communications and Data Networks Limited Limited   Provide communications infrastructure Limited Limited Provide network protection Contributory Limited Provide network synchronization Limited Limited Provide information transfer Limited Limited Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Critical Useful Conduct sensor management and information processing Critical Useful NRO, USAF Detect and identify targets Critical Useful NRO, USAF —Fixed land targets Critical Useful NRO, USAF —Moving land targets Critical Limited USAF —Air and missile targets Critical Limited USAF —Surface targets Critical Limited NRO, USAF —Submarine targets Contributory Limited USAF, NRO

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Navy’s Needs in Space for Providing Future Capabilities Comments/Limitations Space PNT Dependency Current Space Support Lead Agency Comments/Limitations   Critical Limited USAF, DISA, SPAWAR Global coverage, persistence, limited resistance to interference Critical Limited   Monitor/warn of threats to nodes and communications Critical Limited   Critical Effective Critical Limited Critical Effective USAF, NGA Global coverage, persistence, time synchronization Space sensor ISR tasking, processing, fusion, exploitation; SBR, FIA, SBIRS Critical Effective   Space sensor ISR tasking, processing, fusion, exploitation; SBR, FIA, SBIRS Critical Limited Persistence, FIA, SBR/SAR Critical Effective Persistence, SBR/GMTI Critical Limited AMTI, SBIRS Critical Effective ELINT, FIA, SBR/SAR Critical Effective Persistence, area coverage, ocean coverage Critical Limited

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Navy’s Needs in Space for Providing Future Capabilities Capability Potential ISR Dependency Current Space Support Lead Agency —Mines Contributory Limited USAF, NRO Provide cueing and targeting information Critical Useful NRO, USAF Assess engagement results Critical Useful NRO, USAF Common Operational and Tactical Picture Critical Useful   Provide mission planning Critical Useful NRO Provide battle management synchronization Limited Limited   Provide common PNT and environmental information Limited Limited   Integrate and distribute sensor information Contributory Useful NRO, USAF Track and facilitate engagement of time-sensitive targets Critical Limited NRO, USAF Track and facilitate engagement of non-time-sensitive targets Critical Useful NRO, USAF NOTES: Acronyms are listed in Appendix G. “Critical” indicates a Sea Power 21 capability strongly dependent on the indicated space mission area. “Contributory” indicates a Sea Power 21 capability whose performance can be enhanced by access to the indicated space mission area. “Effective” indicates that Navy support to link the space and Sea Power 21 capabilities is at an appropriate level to meet Navy needs. “Useful” indicates that Navy support to link the space and Sea Power 21 capabilities is helping support Navy needs, but could see improvement. “Limited” indicates little or no connection between capability areas or little Navy interaction to link the capability areas.

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Navy’s Needs in Space for Providing Future Capabilities Comments/Limitations Space PNT Dependency Current Space Support Lead Agency Comments/Limitations Persistence, area coverage, ocean coverage Critical Limited   ELINT, FIA, SBR/GMTI/SAR; persistence, area coverage, ocean coverage Critical Effective BDA, IMINT, ELINT; SBR, MTI, SAR Critical Effective   Critical Effective USAF, USN Time synchronization, limited resistance to interference BDA, IMINT, ELINT; SBR, MTI, SAR Critical Effective     Critical Effective Critical Effective Space ISR fusion with theater and force assets Critical Limited DSP only today: future SBIRS, SBR/GMTI, FIA; no planned ATMI; persistence, area and ocean coverage Critical Limited DSP, ELINT, IMINT today: future SBIRS, SBR/GMTI, FIA; no planned ATMI Critical Effective