Appendix C
Committee Member and Participant Biographical Sketches

COMMITTEE ON ADVANCES IN TECHNOLOGY AND THE PREVENTION OF THEIR APPLICATION TO NEXT GENERATION BIOTERRORISM AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARE THREATS

Dr. Stanley M. Lemon, M.D., Co-Chair, is the John Sealy Distinguished University Chair and Director of the Institute for Human Infections and Immunity at the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) at Galveston. He received his undergraduate A.B. degree in biochemical sciences from Princeton University summa cum laude, and his M.D. with honor from the University of Rochester. He completed postgraduate training in internal medicine and infectious diseases at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and is board certified in both. From 1977 to 1983, he served with the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, followed by a 14 year period on the faculty of the University of North Carolina School of Medicine. He moved to UTMB In 1997, serving first as Chair of the Department of Microbiology & Immunology, then as dean of the School of Medicine from 1999 to 2004. Dr. Lemon’s research interests relate to the molecular virology and pathogenesis of positive-strand RNA viruses responsible for hepatitis. He has had a longstanding interest in anti-viral and vaccine development, and has served previously as chair of the Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee, and the Vaccines and Related Biologics Advisory Committee, of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. He is past chair of the Steering Committee on Hepatitis and Poliomyelitis of the World Health Organization Programme on Vaccine Development. He presently serves as a member of the U.S. Delegation of



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An International Perspective on Advancing Technologies and Strategies for Managing Dual-Use Risks: Report of a Workshop Appendix C Committee Member and Participant Biographical Sketches COMMITTEE ON ADVANCES IN TECHNOLOGY AND THE PREVENTION OF THEIR APPLICATION TO NEXT GENERATION BIOTERRORISM AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARE THREATS Dr. Stanley M. Lemon, M.D., Co-Chair, is the John Sealy Distinguished University Chair and Director of the Institute for Human Infections and Immunity at the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) at Galveston. He received his undergraduate A.B. degree in biochemical sciences from Princeton University summa cum laude, and his M.D. with honor from the University of Rochester. He completed postgraduate training in internal medicine and infectious diseases at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and is board certified in both. From 1977 to 1983, he served with the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, followed by a 14 year period on the faculty of the University of North Carolina School of Medicine. He moved to UTMB In 1997, serving first as Chair of the Department of Microbiology & Immunology, then as dean of the School of Medicine from 1999 to 2004. Dr. Lemon’s research interests relate to the molecular virology and pathogenesis of positive-strand RNA viruses responsible for hepatitis. He has had a longstanding interest in anti-viral and vaccine development, and has served previously as chair of the Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee, and the Vaccines and Related Biologics Advisory Committee, of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. He is past chair of the Steering Committee on Hepatitis and Poliomyelitis of the World Health Organization Programme on Vaccine Development. He presently serves as a member of the U.S. Delegation of

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An International Perspective on Advancing Technologies and Strategies for Managing Dual-Use Risks: Report of a Workshop the U.S.-Japan Cooperative Medical Sciences Program, and chairs the Board of Scientific Councilors of the National Center for Infectious Diseases of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. He is Chair of the Forum on Microbial Threats of the Institute of Medicine, and recently chaired an Institute of Medicine study committee related to vaccines for the protection of the military against naturally occurring infectious disease threats. David A. Relman, M.D., Co-Chair, is an associate professor of medicine (infectious diseases and geographic medicine) and of microbiology and immunology at Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, and chief of the Infectious Diseases Section at the Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California. Dr. Relman received his bachelor of science degree in biology from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, and his medical degree from Harvard Medical School. He completed his residency in internal medicine and a clinical fellowship in infectious diseases at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, after which he moved to Stanford as a research fellow and postdoctoral scholar. He joined the Stanford faculty in 1994. His major focus is laboratory research directed toward characterizing the human endogenous microbial flora, host-microbe interactions, and identifying previously-unrecognized microbial pathogens, using molecular and genomic approaches. He has described a number of new human microbial pathogens. Dr. Relman’s lab (http://relman.stanford.edu) is currently exploring human oral and intestinal microbial ecology, sources of variation in host genome-wide expression responses to infection and during states of health, and how Bordetella species (including the agent of whooping cough) cause disease. He has published over 150 peer-reviewed articles, reviews, editorials, and book chapters on pathogen discovery and bacterial pathogenesis. Dr. Relman has served on scientific program committees for the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), and advisory panels for NIH, CDC, the Departments of Energy and Defense, and NASA. He is a member of the Board of Directors of the IDSA, the Board of Scientific Counselors at NIDCR/NIH, and the Forum on Microbial Threats at the Institute of Medicine. He received the Squibb Award from IDSA in 2001, the Senior Scholar Award in Global Infectious Diseases from the Ellison Medical Foundation in 2002, and is a Fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology. Roy Anderson, Ph.D., FRS, FMedSci, is professor of Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Head of the Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology at Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, University of London.

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An International Perspective on Advancing Technologies and Strategies for Managing Dual-Use Risks: Report of a Workshop Roy Anderson is a Fellow of the Royal Society and a Foreign Member of the Institute of Medicine at the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. He has published over 400 scientific papers on the epidemiology, population biology, evolution and control of a wide range of infectious disease agents, including HIV, BSE, vCJD, parasitic helminths and protozoa, and respiratory tract viral and bacterial infections. His principal research interests are epidemiology, biomathematics, demography, parasitology, immunology, and health economics. He also has a keen interest in science policy and the public understanding of science. He has held a wide variety of advisory and consultancy posts with government departments, pharmaceutical companies, and international aid agencies. Professor Anderson has been a member of SEAC since January 1998. Steven M. Block, Ph.D., is a biophysicist at Stanford University, where he holds a joint appointment as a professor in the Departments of Biological Sciences and Applied Physics. He is also a Senior Fellow of the Stanford Institute for International Studies, and a member of the JASONs, a group of academicians who consult for the U.S. government and its agencies on technical matters related to national security. Prior to joining the Stanford faculty in 1999, Professor Block held positions at Princeton University (1994-1999), Harvard University (1987-1994), and the Rowland Institute for Science in Cambridge, MA (1987-1994). He received his undergraduate training in both physics and biology at Oxford University, earned his doctorate from the California Institute of Technology (1983), and conducted postdoctoral research at Stanford. Professor Block’s technical interests are in interdisciplinary science, particularly the biophysics of motor proteins. His laboratory pioneered the use of laser-based optical traps (“optical tweezers”) to study the nanoscale motions of these mechanoenzymes at the level of single molecules, and his group was the first to develop instrumentation able to resolve the individual steps taken by single kinesin motors moving along microtubules. Other biological systems currently under study in his laboratory include RNA polymerase, exonuclease, and helicase, enzymes that move processively along DNA. Professor Block is a strong proponent of nanoscience, but he is also an outspoken critic of the “futurist” element of the nanotechnology movement. Christopher Chyba, Ph.D., is professor of astrophysics and international affairs at Princeton University, where he co-directs the Program on Science and Global Security in the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs. His security-related research focuses on nuclear proliferation and biological terrorism. His planetary science and astrobiology research focuses on the search for life elsewhere in the solar system. A graduate of Swarthmore College, Chyba studied as a Marshall

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An International Perspective on Advancing Technologies and Strategies for Managing Dual-Use Risks: Report of a Workshop Scholar at the University of Cambridge and received his PhD in planetary science from Cornell University in 1991. He served on the White House staff from 1993 to 1995, entering as a White House Fellow on the National Security Council staff and then serving in the National Security Division of the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP). After leaving the White House, he drafted the President’s decision directive on responding to emerging infectious diseases, and authored a report for OSTP in 1998 on preparing for biological terrorism. He received the Presidential Early Career Award, “for demonstrating exceptional potential for leadership at the frontiers of science and technology during the 21st century.” He chaired the Science Definition Team for NASA’s Europa Orbiter mission and served on the executive committee of NASA’s Space Science Advisory Committee, for which he chaired the Solar System Exploration Subcommittee. Dr. Chyba currently serves on the National Academy of Sciences’ Committee for International Security and Arms Control, on the Monterey Nonproliferation Strategy Group, and chairs the National Research Council’s Committee on Preventing the Forward Contamination of Mars. He is a member of the Board of Trustees of the SETI Institute. In October 2001, he was named a MacArthur Fellow for his work in astrobiology and international security. Nancy Connell, Ph.D., associate professor of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, has been appointed Director of the New Jersey Medical School (NJMS)-Center for Biodefense. She is an NIH-funded basic scientist, a permanent member of the NIH Study Section on Bacteriology and Mycology-1, and serves as Director of the Biosafety Level Three Facility of the NJMS-Center for Emerging and Re-emerging Pathogens. She is a graduate of Harvard Medical School and has been a faculty member at NJMS since 1992. Freeman Dyson is now retired, having been for most of his life a professor of physics at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. He was born in England and worked as a civilian scientist for the Royal Air Force in World War II. He graduated from Cambridge University in 1945 with a B.A. degree in mathematics. He went on to Cornell University as a graduate student in 1947 and worked with Hans Bethe and Richard Feynman. His most useful contribution to science was the unification of the three versions of quantum electrodynamics invented by Feynman, Schwinger, and Tomonaga. Cornell University made him a professor without bothering about his lack of a Ph.D. He subsequently worked on nuclear reactors, solidstate physics, ferromagnetism, astrophysics, and biology, looking for problems where elegant mathematics could be usefully applied. He has written a number of books about science for the general public. Disturbing

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An International Perspective on Advancing Technologies and Strategies for Managing Dual-Use Risks: Report of a Workshop the Universe (1974) is a portrait-gallery of people he has known during his career as a scientist. Weapons of Hope (1984) is a study of ethical problems of war and peace. Infinite in All Directions (1988) is a philosophical meditation based on Dyson’s Gifford Lectures on Natural Theology given at the University of Aberdeen in Scotland. Origins of Life (1986, second edition 1999) is a study of one of the major unsolved problems of science. The Sun, the Genome and the Internet (1999) discusses the question of whether modern technology could be used to narrow the gap between rich and poor rather than widen it. Dyson is a fellow of the American Physical Society, a member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, and a fellow of the Royal Society of London. In 2000, he was awarded the Templeton Prize for progress in Religion. Joshua M. Epstein, Ph.D., is a Senior Fellow in Economic Studies at the Brookings Institution, a member of the Brookings-Johns Hopkins Joint Center on Social and Economic Dynamics, and a member of the External Faculty of the Santa Fe Institute. He holds a Ph.D. in Political Science from MIT and is a member of the New York Academy of Sciences. He is also a member of the Editorial Boards of the journal Complexity, and of the Princeton University Press Studies in Complexity book series. His primary research interest is in the modeling of complex social, economic, and biological systems using agent-based computational models and nonlinear dynamical systems. He has taught computational and mathematical modeling at Princeton and the Santa Fe Institute Summer School. He has published widely in the modeling area, including recent articles on the dynamics of civil violence, the demography of the Anasazi (both in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences) and the epidemiology of smallpox (in the American Journal of Epidemiology). His two most recent books are Growing Artificial Societies: Social Science from the Bottom Up, with co-author Robert Axtell, (MIT Press, 1996); and Nonlinear Dynamics, Mathematical Biology, and Social Science (Addison-Wesley/Santa Fe Institute, 1997). His book Generative Social Science: Studies in Agent-Based Computational Modeling is forthcoming from Princeton University Press. Stanley Falkow, Ph.D. (NAS, IOM), is professor of Microbiology and Immunology and Professor of Medicine at Stanford University. Dr. Falkow is recognized internationally for his research related to the molecular mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis. Dr. Falkow is the former President of the American Society for Microbiology and has been elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Academy of Sciences, and the Institute of Medicine. He has received the Squibb Award from the Infectious Diseases Society of America (1978), the Paul Erhlich Award from Germany (1980), the Brisol-Myers-Squibb Award for Infec-

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An International Perspective on Advancing Technologies and Strategies for Managing Dual-Use Risks: Report of a Workshop tious Diseases Research (1997), and the Robert Koch Prize from Germany (2000). Dr. Falkow holds a B.S. in Bacteriology from the University of Maine, an M.S. in Biology from Brown University, and a Ph.D. in Biology from Brown University. Stephen S. Morse, Ph.D., is director of the Center for Public Health Preparedness at the Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University, and a faculty member in the Epidemiology Department. Dr. Morse recently returned to Columbia from 4 years in government service as Program Manager at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), where he co-directed the Pathogen Countermeasures program and subsequently directed the Advanced Diagnostics program. Before coming to Columbia, he was Assistant Professor (Virology) at The Rockefeller University in New York, where he remains an adjunct faculty member. Dr. Morse is the editor of two books, Emerging Viruses (Oxford University Press, 1993; paperback, 1996) (selected by American Scientist for its list of “100 Top Science Books of the 20th Century”), and The Evolutionary Biology of Viruses (Raven Press, 1994). He currently serves as a Section Editor of the CDC journal Emerging Infectious Diseases and was formerly an Editor-in-Chief of the Pasteur Institute’s journal Research in Virology. Dr. Morse was Chair and principal organizer of the 1989 NIAID/NIH Conference on Emerging Viruses (for which he originated the term and concept of emerging viruses/infections); served as a member of the Institute of Medicine’s Forum on Microbial Threats to Health (and chaired its Task Force on Viruses), and was a contributor to its report, Emerging Infections (1992); was a member of the IOM’s Committee on Xenograft Transplantation; currently serves on the Steering Committee of the Institute of Medicine’s Forum on Emerging Infections; and has served as an adviser to WHO (World Health Organization), PAHO (Pan American Health Organization), FDA, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), and other agencies. He is a Fellow of the New York Academy of Sciences and a past Chair of its Microbiology Section. He was the founding Chair of ProMED (the nonprofit international Program to Monitor Emerging Diseases) and was one of the originators of ProMED-mail, an international network inaugurated by ProMED in 1994 for outbreak reporting and disease monitoring using the Internet. Dr. Morse received his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Randall S. (Randy) Murch, Ph.D., received a Bachelor of Science degree in Biology from the University of Puget Sound, Tacoma, Washington in 1974, a Master of Science degree in Botanical Sciences from the University of Hawaii in 1976, and a Doctor of Philosophy degree in Plant Pathology from the University of Illinois in 1979. After 23 years of service as a Spe-

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An International Perspective on Advancing Technologies and Strategies for Managing Dual-Use Risks: Report of a Workshop cial Agent, he retired from the FBI in November 2002. During his FBI career, he was assigned to the Indianapolis, Los Angeles, and New York field divisions, and to the national security, (forensic) laboratory, and investigative technology (engineering) divisions at FBI Headquarters and Quantico, Virginia. He served as a department head and deputy division head in the FBI Laboratory, as well as a deputy division head of the FBI’s electronic surveillance division (investigative technology). He has extensive experience in counterintelligence, counterterrorism, forensic science, electronic surveillance, WMD threat reduction, and outreach to those communities. He created the FBI’s WMD forensic investigation/S&T response program in 1996, and served as the FBI’s science advisor to the 1996 Olympics. From December 1999 to June 2001, he was detailed to the Defense Threat Reduction Agency as the director of DTRA’s advanced systems and concepts office. He has participated in National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council, Defense Science Board and DTRA Threat Reduction Advisory Committee studies and panels and other senior review panels. He joined the Institute for Defense Analyses in December 2002, and now works to deliver creative solutions for difficult national security problems across a range of operational, science, and engineering disciplines. Paula Olsiewski, Ph.D., is leading the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation’s program to reduce the threat of bioterrorism. Since joining the Foundation in 2000, she has created a collaborative network from the public, private, and government sectors that has become critical to the nation’s civilian biodefense movement. Among the many projects Dr. Olsiewski has facilitated is the Department of Homeland Security’s READY campaign, a public education effort that empowers Americans to prepare for potential terrorist attacks. Another important grant to the Center for Law and the Public’s Health at Georgetown and Johns Hopkins Universities produced model legislation for dealing with bioterrorism and catastrophic infectious diseases. Thirty-three states and the District of Columbia have enacted legislation based on the Model State Emergency Health Powers Act. A grant to the National Academies resulted in the Fall 2003 NRC Report Biotechnology Research in an Age of Terrorism: Confronting the Dual Use Dilemma and led to the establishment of the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services in March 2004. During the 1990s, Dr. Olsiewski founded and directed a consulting practice, Neo/Tech Corp., providing expertise in structuring, implementing, and directing technology development programs. Before that, she was Vice President of Commercial Development at Enzo Biotech, Inc. where she was responsible for overall management of product development, technology licensing, and transfer programs. Dr. Olsiewski serves on

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An International Perspective on Advancing Technologies and Strategies for Managing Dual-Use Risks: Report of a Workshop numerous advisory committees and boards. She is a member of the MIT Corporation and was the President of the MIT Alumni/ae Association 2003-2004. She is Chairman of the Board of Trustees of Asphalt Green, Inc., a not-for-profit organization dedicated to assisting individuals of all ages and backgrounds achieve health through a lifetime of sports and fitness. Dr. Olsiewski received a B.S. in Chemistry from Yale College, and a Ph.D. in Biological Chemistry from MIT. Chandra Kumar N. Patel, Ph.D., a member of the National Academy of Engineering and National Academy of Sciences, is chief executive officer and chairman of the board of Pranalytica, Inc. and professor of physics and former vice chancellor of research at the University of California at Los Angeles. Until 1993, Dr. Patel served as executive director of the Research, Materials Science, Engineering and Academic Affairs Division at AT&T Bell Laboratories. Dr. Patel has an extensive background in several fields, to include materials, lasers, and electro-optical devices. During his career at AT&T, which began in 1961, he made numerous seminal contributions in several fields, including gas lasers, nonlinear optics, molecular spectroscopy, pollution detection, and laser surgery. Dr. Patel has served on numerous government and scientific advisory boards and he is past president of Sigma Xi and the American Physical Society. In addition, Dr. Patel has received numerous honors, including the National Medal of Science, for his invention of the carbon dioxide laser. Clarence J. Peters, M.D., is the John Sealy Distinguished University Chair in Tropical and Emerging Virology at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston and is Director for Biodefense in the Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases at that institution. Before moving to Galveston in 2001, he worked in the field of infectious diseases for three decades with NIH, CDC, and the U.S. Army. He has been Chief of Special Pathogens Branch at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia and previous to that, Chief of the Disease Assessment Division and Deputy Commander at USAMRIID. He was the head of the group that contained the outbreak of Ebola at Reston, Virginia and led the scientists who identified hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the southwestern United States in 1993. He has worked on global epidemics of emerging zoonotic virus diseases including Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, Rift Valley fever, and Nipah virus. He received his M.D. from Johns Hopkins University and has more than 275 publications in the area of virology and viral immunology. Dr. Peters is currently also a member of the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Research Standards and Practices to Prevent the Destructive Application of Biotechnology.

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An International Perspective on Advancing Technologies and Strategies for Managing Dual-Use Risks: Report of a Workshop George Poste, D.V.M., Ph.D., is chief executive of Health Technology Networks, a consulting group based in Scottsdale, Arizona and suburban Philadelphia specializing in the application of genetics and computing in healthcare and bioterrorism defense. From 1992 to 1999 he was chief science and technology officer and president, Research and Development of SmithKline Beecham (SB). During his tenure at SB he was associated with the successful registration of 29 drug, vaccine, and diagnostic products. He is chairman of diaDexus and Structural GenomiX in California and Orchid Biosciences in Princeton. He serves on the Board of Directors of AdvancePCS and Monsanto. He is an advisor on biotechnology to several venture capital funds and investment banks. In May 2003 he was appointed as Director of the Arizona Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University. This is a major new initiative combining research groups in biotechnology, nanotechnology, materials science, advanced computing, and neuromorphic engineering. He is a fellow of Pembroke College Cambridge and Distinguished Fellow at the Hoover Institution and Stanford University. He is a member of the Defense Science Board of the U.S. Department of Defense and in this capacity he chairs the Task Force on Bioterrorism. He is also a member of the National Academy of Sciences Working Group on Defense Against Bioweapons. Dr. Poste is a Board Certified Pathologist, a fellow of the Royal Society, and a fellow of the Academy of Medical Sciences. He was awarded the rank of Commander of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II in 1999 for services to medicine and for the advancement of biotechnology. He has published over 350 scientific papers; co-edited 15 books on cancer, biotechnology, and infectious diseases; and serves on the Editorial Board of multiple technical journals. He is invited routinely to be the keynote speaker at a wide variety of academic, corporate, investment, and government meetings to discuss the impact of biotechnology and genetics on healthcare and the challenges posed by bioterrorism. Dr. Poste is married with three children. His personal interests are in military history, photography, automobile racing, and exploring the wilderness zones of the American West. C. Kameswara Rao, Ph.D., initially taught at the Department of Botany, Andhra University, Waltair, and served the Bangalore University from 1967 to 1998. He received the B.Sc. (Hons.), M.Sc., and Ph.D. degrees from the Andhra University, and a D.Sc. (honoris causa) from the Medicina Alternativa Institute, Open International University for Complementary Medicines, Colombo. He was a professor of Botany and the chairman of the Department of Botany, and the Department of Sericulture at the Bangalore University. Currently, he is executive secretary for the Founda-

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An International Perspective on Advancing Technologies and Strategies for Managing Dual-Use Risks: Report of a Workshop tion for Biotechnology Awareness and Education. On a Commonwealth Academic Staff Fellowship and a Royal Society and Nuffield Foundation Bursary, Professor Kameswara Rao worked on the computer applications in plant systematics, at the Natural History Museum, London, and the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, in the UK, besides some other institutions. Professor Kameswara Rao was the President of the Indian Association for Angiosperm Taxonomy for 1999. He is a member of the Indian Subcontinent Plant Specialist Group of the Species Survival Commission, IUCN. He is a member of the Programme Advisory Committee of the Botanical Survey of India and the Zoological Survey of India, Ministry of Forests and Environment, Government of India. He is the executive secretary of the Foundation for Biotechnology Awareness and Education. Professor Rao’s research interests are applications of computers and phytochemistry in plant systematics and databases of medicinal plants. Recently, he was awarded a Certificate of Merit by the World Peace Foundation, Beijing, an affiliate of the UN, for his research work on Indian medicinal plants. Julian Robinson is a chemist and patent lawyer by training. He had previously held research appointments at the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), the Free University of Berlin, and the Harvard University Center for International Affairs. He has been active in the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs since 1968. He has served as an advisor or consultant to a variety of national and international organizations, governmental and nongovernmental, including the World Health Organization, other parts of the United Nations system, the International Committee of the Red Cross, and the UK National Authority for the Chemical Weapons Convention. In association with the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs of the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard, he directs the UK end of the Harvard Sussex Program (HSP), which is a collaborative research, teaching, and publication activity focused on chemical/biological-warfare armament and arms limitation. This is a subject on which he has published some 400 papers and monographs since 1967, including much of the six volume SIPRI study The Problem of Chemical and Biological Warfare (1971-76), Effects of Weapons on Ecosystems (1979), Chemical Warfare Arms Control (1984), NATO Chemical Weapons Policy and Posture (1986), and The Problem of Chemical-Weapon Proliferation in the 1990s (1991). Since 1988, he has been editing, with Matthew Meselson of Harvard University, one of the few journals in the field, The CBW Conventions Bulletin, now published quarterly from the Sussex end of HSP. Peter Singer, Ph.D., is the Sun Life Financial Chair in Bioethics and Director of the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics and the

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An International Perspective on Advancing Technologies and Strategies for Managing Dual-Use Risks: Report of a Workshop Program Director of the Canadian Program on Genomics and Global Health. He directs the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Bioethics at the University of Toronto. He is also professor of Medicine and practices Internal Medicine at Toronto Western Hospital. He studied internal medicine at the University of Toronto, medical ethics at the University of Chicago, and clinical epidemiology at Yale University. A Canadian Institutes of Health Research Investigator, he has published 140 articles on bioethics. He holds over $16 million in research grants from the U.S. National Institutes of Health, Ontario Research and Development Challenge Fund, Genome Canada, and Canadian Institutes of Health Research. He is a member of the ethics committee of the British Medical Journal, and a Director of The Change Foundation. His current research focus is global health ethics. Christopher L. Waller, Ph.D., received his Ph.D. in Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products from the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill in 1992. His graduate research efforts were directed at the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of anti-edema agents. Following graduation, Dr. Waller accepted a post-doctoral fellowship under the direction of Dr. Garland Marshall at Washington University in St. Louis where he focused his efforts on the design HIV protease inhibitors. In 1993, Dr. Waller accepted a position with the U.S. EPA in which he was responsible for the development of structure-activity relationship and pharmacokinetic models as a research chemist and leader of a team of analytical, computational, and synthetic organic chemists, toxicologists, and biomedical engineers. From 1996 to 1999, Dr. Waller served as a Research Manager at OSI Pharmaceuticals. In this role, he managed a group of computational chemists, scientific application developers, and robotics engineers. In early 1999, Dr. Waller joined Eli Lilly- Sphinx Laboratories as a computational chemist and Head of Cheminformatics in the Discovery Chemistry group. Since 2001, Dr. Waller has been Associate Director of Research Informatics for Pfizer Global Research and Development, Ann Arbor Laboratories. Dr. Waller has published over 25 peer-reviewed articles and has received numerous honors and awards including the Board of Publications Award for the Best Paper in Toxicology and Pharmacology in 1996. BIOSKETCHES OF INVITED PARTICIPANTS Charles Arntzen was appointed to the Florence Ely Nelson Presidential Endowed Chair at Arizona State University (ASU) in Tempe in 2000. He also served as the Founding Director of the Biodesign Institute at ASU, and currently serves as the Co-director of the Center for Infectious Dis-

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An International Perspective on Advancing Technologies and Strategies for Managing Dual-Use Risks: Report of a Workshop eases and Vaccinology, a component of that Institute. Prior to joining ASU, Dr. Arntzen was a Director of Research at the Dupont Company in Delaware from 1984 to 1988, and in 1988 he was appointed Deputy Chancellor for Agriculture, Dean, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and Director, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station in the Texas A&M University System. He moved to New York in 1995 to serve as President and CEO of Boyce Thompson Institute—a not-for-profit corporation affiliated with Cornell University. He has served on many national and international committees including service as Chairman of the National Institutes of Health’s Biotechnology Policy Board and as Chair of the Biobased Industrial Products Committee for the National Academy of Sciences. He was elected to the U.S. National Academy of Sciences in 1983 and to the National Academy of India the following year. He currently serves as a member of President George W. Bush’s Council of Advisors on Science & Technology. David Banta graduated from Duke University (M.D. degree) and Harvard University (M.P.H., M.S.). He was program manager and Assistant Director of the U.S. Congressional Office of Technology Assessment from 1975 to 1983. In 1983, he joined the World Health Organization as Deputy Director of PAHO in Washington, DC. In 1985, he moved to the Netherlands to head a Ministry of Health/WHO study of future health care technology, continuing as a staff member of the WHO. He took Dutch citizenship and resigned from the WHO in 1993. From then until formal retirement in 2003, he worked from the Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), the largest research program in the Netherlands. He has worked extensively as a consultant in other countries, mostly in Europe and the more developed countries of the developing countries of the world (China, Brazil, India, Malaysia). Since his retirement, he has worked as a consultant for WHO and for the World Bank on special projects in Serbia, Russia, and Slovenia. He has written and edited more than 10 books on subjects related to health technology assessment. Abdallah Daar is professor of Public Health Sciences and of Surgery at the University of Toronto, where he is also director of the Program in Applied Ethics and Biotechnology at the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics. He is also the director for Ethics and Policy at the McLaughlin Centre for Molecular Medicine. After medical school in London, England, he went to the University of Oxford where he did postgraduate clinical training in surgery and also in internal medicine, a doctorate in transplant immunology/immunogenetics, and a fellowship in transplantation. He was a clinical lecturer in Oxford for several years before going to the Middle East to help start two medical schools. He took

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An International Perspective on Advancing Technologies and Strategies for Managing Dual-Use Risks: Report of a Workshop up the foundation Chair of Surgery in Oman in 1988, where he also headed the research labs. Professor Daar has been an expert advisor to WHO and OECD. He is a fellow of the New York Academy of Sciences and is on the Ethics Committee of the (International) Transplantation Society and of the Human Genome Organization. Professor Daar is also a member of the Institute Advisory Board, Institute of Infection and Immunity of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. He was awarded the Hunterian Professorship of the Royal College of Surgeons of England in 1999 and in 2000 he was appointed to the Roster of Experts for the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/WHO Joint Consultations on Foods Derived from Biotechnology. Dr. Daar has been a visiting scholar in Bioethics at Stanford University and Visiting Professor in the Faculty of Law at the University of Toronto. Editorial Boards include World Journal of Surgery, Kidney Forum, Clinical Transplantation Proceedings, and Bioethics. His current research interests are in the exploration of how genomics and other biotechnologies can be used effectively to ameliorate global health inequities. Miguel Gomez Lim is a Full Professor at the Department of Plant Genetic Engineering of CINVESTAV-Irapuato. He majored in Biology at the National University of Mexico and then obtained his Ph.D. at the University of Edinburgh, UK. After a postdoc at the University of California, Los Angeles, he joined CINVESTAV-Irapuato where he has been working in the plant Genetic Engineering for almost 15 years and for the past 5 he has been actively working in the field of Molecular Farming. He received the National Award for Young Investigators from the Mexican Academy of Sciences in 1998 and is currently a member of the National System for Investigators. Peter Herby is head of the Mines-Arms Unit in the Legal Division of the ICRC. He has written and spoken extensively on the norms of humanitarian law applicable to the use of arms and, more specifically, on landmines, blinding laser weapons, and small arms. He is co-author of an ICRC study on “arms availability and the situation of civilians in armed conflict” (1999). From 1983 to 1993 he worked with chemical, biological, and nuclear arms control negotiations for the Quaker United Nations Office, Geneva. Mr. Herby has represented the ICRC in all arms-related negotiations since 1994 and is responsible for overall development of the ICRC’s initiative on “Biotechnology, Weapons and Humanity.” His holds a Master of Philosophy degree in International Relations from Cambridge University in the United Kingdom and a Masters in Peace and Conflict Studies from the Univesity of Bradford, UK.

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An International Perspective on Advancing Technologies and Strategies for Managing Dual-Use Risks: Report of a Workshop Mauricio Hernandez-Avila has a Medical degree from the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), with a residency in Pathology at the Salvador Zubiran National Institute of Health Sciences and Nutrition (HSNI). He has a Master’s degree in Statistics from UNAM, Applied Mathematics and Systems Research Institute. He has a Master’s Degree and D.Sc. in Epidemiology from the Harvard School of Public Health, 1988. Dr. Hernandez developed his labor trajectory at the Ministry of Health as Attending Physician in the Nutrition Division of the Community in the INNSZ (1981). Dr. Hernandez was incorporated to the General Direction of Epidemiology of the Mexico Ministry of Health as Director of the area of Epidemiological Alertness of Chronic Illnesses and Accidents (1988-1991). In April 1991, Dr. Hernandez was appointed as Director of the Centre of Public Researches in Health. To the completion of his Academic activity, he rejoins to his activities as Director of the Centre of Investigation in Population Health, developing activities of management and teaching, in addition to leading projects of research. On April 1st, 2004, he was appointed Executive Director of the INSP. Dr. Hernandez-Avila is a researcher of recognized prestige at both the national and international levels. He has been a Member of the National Academy of Medicine since 1993 and of the National System of Researchers (Level III National Investigator) since 1990. He sits on the Committee of Biomedical Sciences of CONACyT. His scientific production includes the publication of 187 articles, 7 articles for diffusion, 29 chapters of books, and 6 books, internationally and nationally recognized. Luis Herrera-Estrella is director of the Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN-Unidad Irapuato, Irapuato, Gto, Mexico. He graduated with a B.Sc. degree in Biochemical Engineering from the Mexican National Polytechnic Institute and received a Ph.D. from the State University of Ghent, Belgium. Dr. Herrera-Estrella has made important contributions to the field of plant molecular biology, especially in the study of gene regulation and in the development of gene transfer methods. While still working as a Ph.D. student he published the first report on the genetic manipulation of plant cells and pioneered the development of dominant selectable markers for plant transformation. His current research is now primarily focused on the development transgenic plants better adapted to marginal soils. Dr. Herrera-Estrella has been awarded several national and international prizes, among them the award in biology from the Mexican Academy of Sciences, the Minoru and Ethel Tsutsui Research Award of the New York Academy of Sciences, and the Javed Husain prize from UNESCO. He was elected foreign associated member of the National Academy of Sciences (US) in 2003.

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An International Perspective on Advancing Technologies and Strategies for Managing Dual-Use Risks: Report of a Workshop Gerardo Jimenez-Sanchez is professor of Genomic Medicine at the UNAM and Resident Investigator of the Mexican Health Foundation (FUNSALUD). He is also Acting Director of the National Institute of Genomic Medicine of Mexico, affiliate member of the Institute of Genetic Medicine of Johns Hopkins University. His actual work focuses on the study of the human genome, particularly in human disease causing genes, production of animal models for the study of monogenic diseases, and the development of genomic medicine. He has led the efforts being done in Mexico to establish the National Institute of Genomic Medicine. He served as Director of the Consortium for the Institute of Genomic Medicine from 2002 to 2004. He obtained his Medical Doctor degree from the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). He did his residency in Pediatrics at the National Institute of Pediatrics and earned his Ph.D. degree in Human Genetics and Molecular Biology from the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, MD. He received his training in business administration from the IPADE Business School. In August 2003, he was elected Founding President of the Mexican Society of Genomic Medicine and he served as President of the I National Congress of Genomic Medicine in August 2004. Dr. Jimenez-Sanchez is a certified pediatrician and a member of the Mexican Academy of Pediatrics, the Mexican Society of Pediatrics, the Mexican Association of Human Genetics, the Mexican Society of Biochemistry, and the American Societies of Human Genetics, Inborn Errors of Metabolism and Gene Therapy, the European Society of Inborn Errors of Metabolism, and the Human Genome Organization (HUGO), National Commission for the Human Genome. Elliott Kagan is professor of Pathology, Emerging Infectious Disease, and Preventive Medicine & Biometrics at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences in Bethesda, MD. His expertise is in the area of lung biology and his research has centered on the role of cytokines and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the pathogenesis of pleural and pulmonary injury induced by inhaled particulates such as asbestos and silica. For approximately the last year, his research focus has changed and has concentrated on biodefense against a possible aerosolized Ebola virus threat. He also has written on the potential of bioregulators to be used as future biological threat agents. Dr. Kagan has served on several NIH study sections and other scientific panels. Robert Mathews is a principal research scientist in the Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Defence Centre of the Australian Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO). His main current scientific research interest is the development of analytical methods to support verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and

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An International Perspective on Advancing Technologies and Strategies for Managing Dual-Use Risks: Report of a Workshop the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC). Dr. Mathews served as scientific adviser to the Australian Delegation to the Conference on Disarmament from 1984, and since 1993 he has provided scientific support to the Australian delegation to the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), based in The Hague. He has also been actively involved in other Australian government efforts towards non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, including providing scientific support to the meetings of the Australia Group (CB export licensing measures) since its inception in 1985, and in the efforts to develop a Verification Protocol and other methods to strengthen the BWC. He has also made many visits to regional countries for arms control consultations, including guidance in their preparations for national implementation of the BWC and CWC. In 2002, he was appointed an associate professor and member of the Advisory Board of the Asia Pacific Centre for Military Law at the University of Melbourne. He is also Deputy-Chair of the Australian Red Cross International Humanitarian Law (IHL) National Advisory Committee, and provides advice on a range of arms control issues in that capacity. Dr. Mathews was elected Fellow of the Royal Australian Chemical Institute in 1995, and became a member of the International Verification Consultants Network of the Verification Research, Training and Information Centre (VERTIC, London) in 1998. In 2003, he was awarded a D.Sc. for his published work and other contributions to chemical and biological defence and arms control. Michael Morgan is a graduate of Trinity College, Dublin and obtained his Ph.D. (Leicester University) in 1968. He joined the staff of Leicester University in 1971 where he set up a somatic cell facility studying interferon and carbohydrate metabolism. He joined the Wellcome Trust in 1983 and as director of Research Partnerships and Ventures was responsible for the development of new enterprises such as the Synchrotron Project, the SNPs Consortium, and the structural genomics consortium. He played a major role in the international coordination of the Human Genome Project and was chief executive of the Wellcome Trust Genome Campus; he is now a Consultant for Special Projects at the Wellcome Trust. He is chairman of the Board of the Structural Genomics Consortium, a director of Diamond Light Source and the Conway Institute, and a trustee of the Institute of Cancer Research and the Scottish Crop Research Institute. Janet K.A. Nicholson is associate director for Laboratory Science, National Center for Infectious Diseases (NCID), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Previous positions include deputy chief, Immunology Branch, Division of HIV/AIDS, NCID; Research Chemist, Immunology Branch, Division of Immunologic, Oncologic, and Hemato-

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An International Perspective on Advancing Technologies and Strategies for Managing Dual-Use Risks: Report of a Workshop logic Diseases, NCID; postdoctoral fellow, Division of Immunology, Bureau of Laboratories, CDC; research scientist, Emory University; Research Technician, University of Texas Medical Branch; research technician, University of Nebraska Medical Center. Dr. Nicholson received a B.S. from Buena Vista College and a Ph.D. from Emory University. She is a member of the Interagency Working Group for Select Agents, and the Interagency Biosecurity Subcommittee of Select Agents. She was a delegate for the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Other memberships include the Biosecurity subcommittee for the Biomedical and Microbiological Biosafety Manual revision, 2004, the Infectious Diseases Committee, Association of Public Health Laboratories. She was coordinator of the ASM/NCID Postdoctoral Fellowship, a member of the Laboratory Response Network (LRN) Steering Committee, and past president of the Clinical Cytometry Society. Dr. Nicholson’s international activities include a role as a U.S. representative for the Global Health Action Group Laboratory Network, and an expert for the Biological Weapons Convention Expert Meeting on Biosecurity, 2003. She is involved in efforts to develop alternative technologies for CD4 enumeration through the WHO. Dr. Nicholson’s current scientific interests include emerging infectious diseases and laboratory response to bioterror threats. Mikeljon P. Nikolich is a microbiologist working with Dr. Luther Lindler and managing plague research in the Department of Homeland Security’s Biological Threat Characterization Program in the National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center laboratory at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) in Silver Spring, Maryland. Dr. Nikolich earned his Ph.D. at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1994 and has since done research at the WRAIR, devoting the past 8 years to developing live attenuated vaccines to protect humans against the bacterial biothreat agent Brucella melitensis. Kathryn Nixdorff studied microbiology and biochemistry at the University of Florida and did postdoctoral research as an Alexander von Humboldt Fellow at the Max-Planck-Institute of Immunobiology in Freiburg, Germany. She was an instructor in the Department of Cell Biology, University of Kentucky Medical School, and is at present a professor in the Department of Microbiology and Genetics at Darmstadt University of Technology, Germany. She teaches microbiology and immunology and carries out research on molecular aspects of the interaction of microorganisms with cells of the immune system, in particular the regulation of proinflammatory cytokine production in macrophages. In addition, she is a founding member of the interdisciplinary research group concerned with science, technology and security (IANUS) at the university. In this

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An International Perspective on Advancing Technologies and Strategies for Managing Dual-Use Risks: Report of a Workshop group she works on problems involving the development of biotechnology and its relevance for the control of biological weapons. Jacques Ravel is an assistant investigator at the Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR), Rockville, MD, an innovative leading non-profit institution in the field of genomics and bioinformatics. He is a member of the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s sponsored Scientific Workgroup on Microbial Genetic and Forensics (SWGMGF), which aims at establishing the baseline procedures for the emerging field of Microbial Forensics. His main research interests are in the fields of comparative genomic of microbial biothreat agents and the application of genomic technologies in microbial forensics. He is leading TIGR’s effort in the FBI investigation of the anthrax mail attacks of the Fall 2001. Dr. Ravel received a Ph.D. degree in Microbial Molecular Ecology from the University of Maryland College Park. He also holds an adjunct appointment as an assistant professor at the Center of Marine Biotechnology, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute in Baltimore. Decio Ripandelli graduated in 1981 in Natural Sciences and Experimental Geology at the Pierre and Marie Curie University of Paris. In January of 1982 he joined AGIP, the Italian national oil company, and started his career with the United Nations system in August of 1984, by joining a technical assistance project in Tanzania. Other overseas assignments brought him to Niger (1987-1988) and the Philippines (1988-1989). In mid-1989 he entered the Italian Ministry for Foreign Affairs, where he was in charge of all the programs financed by the government of Italy through the UN specialized agencies in the fields of scientific, technological, and industrial cooperation. He joined ICGEB in 1991 and has been instrumental in organizing the Centre’s autonomy from UNIDO. Presently, as Director for Administration and External Relations of ICGEB, he supervises the management of the Centre and of its two Components of Trieste and New Delhi, while being in charge of all ICGEB’s external and international relations. He also directs the Institutional Services implemented by ICGEB, with major emphasis on biosafety, intellectual property rights, and international cooperation in the framework of the Biological Weapons Convention. Amy Sands has been dean of the Graduate School of International Policy Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies since August 2003. Before assuming the position of dean, she had been deputy director of the Center for Nonproliferation Studies, also at the Monterey Institute, for the previous seven years. From August 1994 to June 1996, she was assistant director of the Intelligence, Verification, and Information Man-

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An International Perspective on Advancing Technologies and Strategies for Managing Dual-Use Risks: Report of a Workshop agement Bureau at the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA). Upon leaving the government, Dr. Sands received ACDA’s Distinguished Honor Award and the On-Site Inspection Agency’s Exceptional Civilian Service Medal. Before joining ACDA, she led the Proliferation Assessments Section of Z Division at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. She is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the International Institute of Strategic Studies. Nadrian C. Seeman received a B.S. in biochemistry from the University of Chicago and then went on to receive his Ph.D. in biological crystallography from the University of Pittsburgh in 1970. His postdoctoral training, at Columbia and MIT, emphasized nucleic acid crystallography. He obtained his first independent position at SUNY/Albany, where his frustrations with the macromolecular crystallization experiment and his awareness of the fatal series—no crystals, no crystallography, no crystallographer—led him to the campus pub one day in the fall of 1980. There, he realized that the similarity between six-arm DNA branched junctions and the flying fish in the periodic array of Escher’s “Depth” might lead to a rational approach to the organization of matter on the nanometer scale, particularly crystallization. Ever since, he has been trying to implement this approach and its spin-offs, such as nanorobotics and nanoelectronics; for the past 16 years he has worked at New York University. Jerome Amir Singh is Head of the Bioethics and Health Law Programme at the Center for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, Durban, South Africa; Adjunct Professor in the Department of Public Health Sciences and Joint Center for Bioethics at the University of Toronto, Canada; and Course Director for Bioethics and the Law at Howard College School of Law, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. He serves on the International Research Ethics Board of Médecins Sans Frontières, the United States National Institutes of Health International Therapeutic Data Safety Monitoring Board, the Research Ethics Committee of the South African Human Sciences Research Council, and the Executive Committee of CAPRISA. Patrick Tan holds a joint appointment as group leader at the Genome Institute of Singapore and principal investigator at the National Cancer Centre of Singapore. His research interests lie in the application of genome-level targeted technologies to understand how genetic differences at both the cellular and organismal level can influence the development of various diseases and other complex phenotypes. He received his B.A. (summa cum laude) from Harvard University, and M.D. and Ph.D. degrees

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An International Perspective on Advancing Technologies and Strategies for Managing Dual-Use Risks: Report of a Workshop from Stanford University, where he received the Charles Yanofsky prize for Most Outstanding Graduate Thesis in Physics, Biology or Chemistry. Prior to joining GIS, Dr. Tan was a senior research fellow at the Defence Medical and Environmental Research Institute (Medical Biodefence Program) of the Defence Science Organization (DSO) in Singapore. He has published numerous articles in scientific journals such as Cell, Science, Molecular Microbiology, and Genome Research. Dr. Tan is also the chief scientific officer of Agenica Research, a cancer genomics joint venture between NCC, Mitsui Corp., and Shimadzu Corp., and the first collaborative research company established between Singapore and Japan. Terence Taylor is president and executive director of the International Institute for Strategic Studies-US (IISS-US). He is also assistant director of the IISS in London. He studies international security policy, risk analysis, scientific and technological developments and their impact on political and economic stability worldwide. Mr. Taylor is one of the Institute’s leading experts on issues associated with nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons and their means of delivery. He was one of the Commissioners to the UN Special Commission on Iraq for which he also conducted missions as a Chief Inspector. He was a research fellow on the Science Program at the Center for International Security and Cooperation at Stanford University where he carried out, among other subjects, studies of the implications for government and industry of the weapons of mass destruction treaties and agreements. He has also worked as a consultant for the International Committee of the Red Cross on the implementation and development of the laws of armed conflict and as a consultant for private companies on political risk analysis (both regional and country-specific). Prior to joining IISS Mr. Taylor worked as a political affairs officer at UN Headquarters in the Department for Disarmament Affairs and earlier for the UK Ministry of Defence as a member of the staff for the development of policy on arms control and non-proliferation measures on nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons. In this capacity he was a member of the UK negotiating team for Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty review conferences, the Chemical Weapons Convention, and also a member of joint US/UK inspection teams in Russia investigating the biological weapons program in that country. He has also been a member of the UK delegation at the UN General Assembly’s Committee on Disarmament and the UN Disarmament Commission. He served as a career officer in the British Army on operations in many parts of the world, including counterterrorist operations and UN peace keeping. Tibor Toth is the Permanent Representative of Hungary to the United Nations Office and Other International Organizations in Geneva and the

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An International Perspective on Advancing Technologies and Strategies for Managing Dual-Use Risks: Report of a Workshop Permanent Representative of Hungary to the Conference on Disarmament. For the past 20 years Ambassador Toth has been participating in a wide variety of multilateral conferences and bodies related to political, disarmament, economic, human rights, and humanitarian activities of the UN. He has served in various office-holder capacities in those fora. Since 1980 he has been participating in the work of the UN General Assembly and numerous codification and review conferences of political and arms control agreements. He served as permanent representative to the OPCW Preparatory Commission and as governor of the IAEA’s Board of Governors. He has been the chairman of the CTBT Preparatory Commission’s subsidiary body on administrative, financial and legal issues since 1997. In 1991, he began chairing a number of diplomatic conferences related to the Biological Weapons Convention.

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