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Aphids, 84

Apple (Malus pumila), 165

Aquifex aeolicus, 233, 273

Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea, 136

Arabidopsis thaliana, 338, 341

Arbacia sp., 146, 147, 151-152

Archaea, 270, 271, 273

Archaeoglobus fulgidus, 271, 272, 273, 278

Arctic charr (Salvelinus), 78

Ardipithecus ramidus, 53

Arms-race evolution, 6

genetic, 20;

see also Inter-locus antagonistic coevolution

intersexual, 27-28, 29, 41

interspecific antagonistic coevolution, 25, 28

in reproductive proteins, 113

Artificial chromosome libraries, 113

Artificial selection, directional asymmetry, 81

Ascomycota, 337

Aspergillus nidulans, 337

Association mapping, 287, 288, 302

Assortative mating, 156, 311

Australian grassfinches. See Poephilia

Australian grasshoppers (Morabinae), 50

Australopithecus

afarensis, 53-54

ananmensis, 53

Autopolyploidy, 49

Avian speciation

allopatric, 96, 97, 98, 101-102, 103-104, 145

behavioral factors, 96, 102, 103, 106, 157

bottlenecks, 96

chicken genome project, 95, 97, 110, 111, 112, 113

coloration, 157

cryptic mate choice and, 102, 104, 106, 111-113

delimitation, 96, 97-101

developmental recombination, 75

diagnosability, 97-98, 99

divergence, 98, 99, 103

ecological selection, 96, 102, 103, 104

environmental factors, 83

fast-X evolution, 109-110

gene trees, 98-101

genealogical congruence, 99-101

genetic incompatibilities, 95, 96, 97, 107

habitat-dependent selection, 103, 104

Haldane’s rule, 105, 107-109, 110

hierarchy in, 157

hybridization, 102, 104, 105, 107-109, 110-111

internal factors, 96

intraspecific niche polymorphism, 103

large X(Z)-effect, 105, 109

learning, 96, 103, 104-105

mimicry, 105, 106

molecular research, 95, 96

morphological adaptations, 99, 101, 103, 104, 157

parapatric, 102

phylogeographic patterns, 101-103, 105, 113

plumage, 102, 103-104, 109, 111, 157

Poephilia finches, 98-99

reinforcement, 95, 96, 97, 110-111

reproductive character displacement, 103-104

and reproductive isolation, 84, 95, 97, 101-105, 106, 107, 110-111

reproductive proteins and, 111-113

sea urchins compared, 157

sex chromosomes and, 105-111

sexual conflict, 112-113

sexual imprinting, 96, 104-105, 106

sexual selection, 91, 95, 96, 102, 107-109, 111, 157

Solomon Islands, 96

song and, 101-105, 109, 111

species trees, 99-100

sperm competition, 111, 112-113

sympatric, 91, 96-97, 102, 103-105

Ayala, Francisco J., 6, 46-68

B

Baboons, 76

Bacillus halodurans, 273

Bacillus subtilis, 272, 273, 336, 342

Bacteria

artificial chromosome libraries, 113

barrier to gene exchange, 234-235

base composition analysis, 231-232

clonal evolution, 269, 270, 272

defining species, 236-238

determinants of gene exchange, 234-236

gene replacement, 234



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