tional materials as associate editor of the Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching and as an advisory board member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science’s BiosciEdNet digital portal. She has a B.S. in biology from Newcomb College of Tulane University (1976), K-12 California single-subject teaching credentials in both life science and physical science from Mills College (1989), and a Ph.D. in physiology and biophysics from the Indiana University School of Medicine (1999).

William A. Sandoval is associate professor in the Psychological Studies in Education division of the Graduate School of Education and Information Studies at the University of California, Los Angeles. His research concerns students’ epistemological beliefs about science, scientific argumentation, inquiry teaching practices, and the design of science learning environments. He began his work as a member of the BGuILE project at Northwestern University and is now principal investigator of the CENSEI project, exploring how to leverage live scientific data for middle school science. He has written and spoken internationally on the design of science learning environments, student and teacher learning in science, and design-based research methods. He serves on the editorial board of the Journal of the Learning Sciences and Science Education and reviews for a number of education research journals. He was cochair of the 2004 International Conference of the Learning Sciences and past chair of the special interest group in education in science and technology of the American Educational Research Association. He is a member of the American Educational Research Association, the National Association of Research in Science Teaching, the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, and the International Society of the Learning Sciences. He has a B.S. in computer science from the University of New Mexico and a Ph.D. in learning sciences from Northwestern University (1998).

Heidi Schweingruber (Program Officer) is on the staff of the Board on Science Education and is co-study director for its study of science learning in kindergarten through eighth grade. Prior to joining the National Research Council, she was a senior research associate at the Institute of Education Sciences in the U.S. Department of Education. In her role there she served as a program officer for the preschool curriculum evaluation program and for a grant program in mathematics education. She was also a liaison to the Department of Education’s Mathematics and Science Initiative and an adviser to the Early Reading First program. Before moving into policy work, she was the director of research for the Rice University School Mathematics Project, an outreach program in K-12 mathematics education, and taught in the psychology and education departments. She is a developmental psychologist with substantial training in anthropology. She has a Ph.D. in psychology from the University of Michigan (1997).

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