Index

A

AAAS. See American Association for the Advancement of Science

AAPT. See American Association of Physics Teachers

Access, to large databases, 32

Accidents, frequency of, 186–187

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 20, 28, 54, 63, 83

American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT), 158

American Chemical Society, 64–65, 67

American College Testing Service, 47

American Geological Institute, 65

American Institute of Biological Sciences, 64

American Institute of Physics, 65

American Physiological Society, 64

Arons, Arnold, 24

Assessment

large-scale, 68

of student learning in laboratory experiences, 10, 200

in support of learning, informing integrated instructional units, 81

Assistance, expert, providing to schools and teachers, 155–156

B

Benchmarks for Science Literacy, 28

BGuILE science instructional unit, 94, 105

Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS), 23, 154

Brunner, Jerome, 26

BSCS. See Biological Sciences Curriculum Study



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America’s Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science Index A AAAS. See American Association for the Advancement of Science AAPT. See American Association of Physics Teachers Access, to large databases, 32 Accidents, frequency of, 186–187 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 20, 28, 54, 63, 83 American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT), 158 American Chemical Society, 64–65, 67 American College Testing Service, 47 American Geological Institute, 65 American Institute of Biological Sciences, 64 American Institute of Physics, 65 American Physiological Society, 64 Arons, Arnold, 24 Assessment large-scale, 68 of student learning in laboratory experiences, 10, 200 in support of learning, informing integrated instructional units, 81 Assistance, expert, providing to schools and teachers, 155–156 B Benchmarks for Science Literacy, 28 BGuILE science instructional unit, 94, 105 Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS), 23, 154 Brunner, Jerome, 26 BSCS. See Biological Sciences Curriculum Study

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America’s Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science Budgeting for laboratory facilities, equipment, and supplies, 173–174 Building Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc., 183 C California Department of Education, 30–31 California Institute of Technology, 155 Center for Embedded Networked Sensing (CENS), 106 Changing goals for the nature of science, 23 for science education, 22–23, 28–29 Chemical Education Materials group, 23 Chemical hygiene plan (CHP), 183 Chemistry That Applies (CTA), scaling up, 82–83 CHP. See Chemical hygiene plan City University of New York, 155 Clearly communicating purposes, 101 CLP. See Computer as Learning Partner Community-centered environments, informing integrated instructional units, 81 Complex phenomena and ideas, structured interactions with, 105 Computer as Learning Partner (CLP), 84–85 Computer technologies and laboratory experiences, 103–106 computer technologies designed to support learning, 103–105 computer technologies designed to support science, 105–106 scaffolded representations of natural phenomena, 103–104 structured interactions with complex phenomena and ideas, 105 structured simulations of inaccessible phenomena, 104–105 Conclusions regarding current high school laboratory experiences, 6 regarding definitions and goals of high school science laboratories, 2 regarding effectiveness of laboratory experiences, 6 regarding laboratory facilities and school organization, 8 regarding state standards and accountability systems, 9 regarding teacher preparation for laboratory experiences, 7 Continued learning about laboratory experiences, 10, 200 Course-taking, disparities in laboratory experiences by variation in, 120–121 CTA. See Chemistry That Applies Cultivating interest in science and interest in learning science, 77

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America’s Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science Current debates, 30–31 Current high school laboratory experiences, 6–9, 197 conclusions regarding, 6 laboratory facilities and school organization, 7–8 state standards and accountability systems, 8–9 teacher preparation for laboratory experiences, 7 Current laboratory experiences, 116–137 features of, 119–120 quality of current laboratory experiences, 123–133 quantity of laboratory instruction, 118–123 summary, 133–134 the unique nature of laboratory experiences, 117–118 Current patterns in implementing safety policies, 184–186 estimated costs of improving laboratory safety, 186 laboratory science safety checklists, 185 Current state of teacher knowledge, in preservice education, 145–148 uneven qualifications of preservice science education, 147–148 uneven qualifications of science teachers, 145–147 Curricula. See also New science curricula, developing; Post-Sputnik science curricula changing roles of, 29–30 influence on science instruction, 7, 61–64 D Databases, access to large, 32 Daugherty, Ellyn, 65 Design of effective laboratory experiences clearly communicated purposes, 101 integrated learning of science concepts and processes, 102 ongoing discussion and reflection, 102 principles for, 101–102 sequenced into the flow of information, 4, 102 Developing new science curricula, 23–26 new approaches included in post-Sputnik science curricula, 25 Developing practical skills, 77, 92–93 evidence from research on integrated instructional units, 93 evidence from research on typical laboratory experiences, 92–93 Developing scientific reasoning, 76–77, 90–92 evidence from research on integrated instructional units, 91–92 evidence from research on typical laboratory experiences, 90–91 Developing teamwork abilities, 77 Dewey, John, 20–21 Diffusion, across a selectively permeable membrane, 125 Disabilities Education Act, 50 Discovery learning and inquiry, 26–27

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America’s Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science Discussion, ongoing, 102 Disparities in laboratory equipment, 179–180 in supplies, 180–182 Disparities in laboratory experiences, 120–123 by ethnicity, 122–123 and science course offerings, 121–122 variation in course-taking, 120–121 Disparities in laboratory facilities, 177–179 by proportion of minority students, 178 by proportion of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch, 179 Diverse populations of learners, 10, 200 Diversity increases, 48–51 linguistic and ethnic diversity, 49 in schools, 27 special educational needs, 49–51 in U.S. science education, 48–51 E The education context, 42–74 policies influencing high school laboratory experiences, 51–67 recent trends in U.S. science education, 43–51 summary, 67–68 Educational goals. See Goals for laboratory experiences Effectiveness of laboratory experiences, 4–6, 10, 86–101, 200 conclusions regarding, 6 description of the literature review, 86–88 developing practical skills, 92–93 interest in science and interest in learning science, 95–98 mastery of subject matter, 88–90 overall effectiveness of laboratory experiences, 99–101 teamwork, 98–99 understanding the nature of science, 93–95 Emergency Planning and Right-to-Know laws and regulations, 183 Empirical work, understanding the complexity and ambiguity of, 77 Enrollment increases, 48–51 linguistic and ethnic diversity, 49 special educational needs, 49–51 in U.S. science education, 48–51 EPA. See U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Estimated costs, of improving laboratory safety, 186 Ethnicity, disparities in laboratory experiences by, 122–123 Evidence from research on integrated instructional units on developing practical skills, 93 on interest in science and interest in learning science, 97–98

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America’s Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science on mastery of subject matter, 89–90 on teamwork, 98–99 on understanding the nature of science, 94–95 Evidence from research on typical laboratory experiences on developing practical skills, 92–93 on interest in science and interest in learning science, 95–96 on mastery of subject matter, 88–89 on teamwork, 98 on understanding the nature of science, 94 Evidence on the effectiveness of laboratory experiences, 195–197 attainment of educational goals in different types of laboratory experiences, 196 principles of instructional design, 197 Examples of high school chemistry laboratory experiences, 130 of integrated instructional units, 82–85 Examples of professional development focused on laboratory teaching, 151–156 13-week science methodology course, 152–153 Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, 154 Laboratory Learning: An Inservice Institute, 152 professional development partnerships with the scientific community, 154–155 Project ICAN, 153 providing expert assistance to schools and teachers, 155–156 Expert assistance, providing to schools and teachers, 155–156 F Facilities, equipment and safety, 168–192 disparities in laboratory equipment, 179–180 disparities in laboratory facilities, 177–179 disparities in supplies, 180–182 laboratory safety, 182–189 providing, 168–192 summary, 189 and supplies, 168–192 budgeting for laboratory facilities, equipment, and supplies, 173–174 designing laboratory experiences and facilities when resources are scarce, 175–177 laboratories on wheels, 176 laboratory design and student learning, 169–173 Feedback, 81 Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, 132 Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 154 Frequency of accidents and injuries, 186–187 Future perspectives, 199–201 assessment of student learning in laboratory experiences, 10, 200

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America’s Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science continued learning about laboratory experiences, 10, 200 diverse populations of learners, 10, 200 effective teaching and learning in laboratory experiences, 10, 200 school organization for effective laboratory teaching, 10, 200 G General pedagogical knowledge, 142–143 GenScope program, 104 Goals for laboratory experiences, 3–4, 76–78 cultivating interest in science and interest in learning science, 77 developing practical skills, 77 developing scientific reasoning, 76–77 developing teamwork abilities, 77 in different types of laboratory experiences, attainment of, 196 enhancing mastery of subject matter, 76 understanding the complexity and ambiguity of empirical work, 77 understanding the nature of science, 77 H Hall, Edwin, 19 Harvard University, 19 HHMI. See Howard Hughes Medical Institute High school science role and vision of laboratory experiences in, 16 and undergraduate science achievement, in U.S. science education, 47–48 High school science laboratories committee definition of laboratory experiences, 3 conclusions regarding, 2 definitions and goals of, 2–4 goal of laboratory experiences, 3–4 History of laboratory education, 18–30 1850-1950, 18–22 1950-1975, 22–27 1975 to present, 27–30 changing goals for science education, 22–23, 28–29 changing goals for the nature of science, 23 changing role of teachers and curriculum, 29–30 development of new science curricula, 23–26 discovery learning and inquiry, 26–27 diversity in schools, 27 How People Learn, 79 Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI), 64, 66, 154, 175 I ICAN. See Project ICAN Inaccessible phenomena, structured simulations of, 104–105 Injuries, frequency of, 186–187 Instruction, teachers’ duty of, 182

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America’s Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science Instructional design, principles of, 6, 197 Instructional design principles, quality of current laboratory experiences compared with, 123–127 Integrated instructional units, 82–85, 196 assessment to support learning, 81 in community-centered environments, 81 Computer as Learning Partner, 84–85 design of, 81–82 effectiveness of, 5 in knowledge-centered environments, 80–81 in learner-centered environments, 79 principles of learning informing, 79–81 scaling up Chemistry That Applies, 82–83 for science concepts and processes, 102 ThinkerTools, 84 Interactions with complex phenomena and ideas, structured, 105 with data drawn from the real world, 3, 32 with simulations, 31–32 Interest in science and interest in learning science, 95–98 evidence from research on integrated instructional units, 97–98 evidence from research on typical laboratory experiences, 95–96 student perceptions of typical laboratory experiences, 96–97 International comparative test results, 46–47 International Technology Education Association, 172–173 Internet links, 32, 120 Introductory Physical Science, 23–24 K Kilpatrick, William, 21 Knowledge-centered environments, informing integrated instructional units, 80–81 Knowledge Integration Environment project, 92 Knowledge of assessment, 143–144 L Laboratories on wheels, 176 Laboratory design and student learning, 169–173 Laboratory experiences, 127–131 approaches to learning physics using a pendulum, 128–129 attainment of educational goals in different types of, 196 committee definition of, 3 continued learning about, 10, 200 defining, 31–34, 37 diffusion across a selectively permeable membrane, 125 disparities in, 120–123 examples of, 130 overall effectiveness of, 99–101 quality of current laboratory experiences compared with a range of, 127–131

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America’s Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science role in science education, 193–194 science courses and, 118–120 what students do in, 132–133 Laboratory experiences and facilities, designing when resources are scarce, 175–177 Laboratory experiences and student learning, 75–115, 194–197 computer technologies and laboratory experiences, 103–106 defining, 194–195 effectiveness of laboratory experiences, 86–101 evidence on the effectiveness of laboratory experiences, 195–197 goals of laboratory experiences, 76–78, 195 principles for design of effective laboratory experiences, 101–102 recent developments in research and design of laboratory experiences, 78–85 summary, 106–108 Laboratory experiences for the 21st century, 193–201 current high school laboratory experiences, 197 readiness of teachers and schools to provide laboratory experiences, 198–199 role of laboratory experiences in science education, 193–194 toward the future, 199–201 Laboratory facilities and equipment role of the scientific community in providing, 65–66 and school organization, 7–8 Laboratory-focused curriculum, role of the scientific community in providing, 65 Laboratory Learning: An Inservice Institute, 152 Laboratory safety, 182–189 checklists for, 185 current patterns in implementing safety policies, 184–186 estimated costs of improving, 186 frequency of accidents and injuries, 186–187 lack of systemic safety enforcement, 187–189 liability for student safety, 182 standards of care for student safety, 183–184 Laboratory Science Teacher Professional Development Program, 154 Laboratory teaching and learning, scheduling, 157–159 Learner-centered environments, informing integrated instructional units, 79 Learners, diverse populations of, 10, 200 Learning goals, need for focus on clear, 6, 123–124 Liability for student safety, 182 teachers’ duty of instruction, 182 teachers’ duty of maintenance, 182 teachers’ duty of supervision, 182

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America’s Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science Limitations of the research, 86–87 Linguistic and ethnic diversity, 49 The literature review, 86–88 description of, 86–88 limitations of the research, 86–87 scope of the literature search, 87–88 M Maintenance, teachers’ duty of, 182 Mann, Charles, 20 Mastery of subject matter, 88–90 evidence from research on integrated instructional units, 89–90 evidence from research on typical laboratory experiences, 88–89 Material Safety Data Sheets, 183 Miller, Jon, 43 Minority students, disparities in laboratory facilities by proportion of, 178 N NAEP. See National Assessment of Educational Progress National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 64 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 1, 44–46, 56, 119–120 National Center for Education Statistics, 146 Schools and Staffing survey, 177 National Education Association, 19 National Education Longitudinal Study, 122 National Fire Protection Association, Inc., 183 National Human Genome Research Institute, 67 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 183 National Institutes of Health (NIH), 67 National Research Council (NRC), 2, 14, 57, 79, 129, 146, 149, 171 National Science Achievement test results, 44–46 National Science Education Standards (NSES), 26, 28, 54–56, 59–60, 63 National Science Foundation (NSF), 2, 14, 22–24, 29–30, 43, 59, 65, 106, 119, 175 National Science Teachers Association (NSTA), 159, 172, 183, 187–188 “Negligence,” 182–183 New approaches, included in post-Sputnik science curricula, 25 New science curricula, developing, 23–26 New York, hands-on performance assessment of laboratory learning experiences in, 58 New York State Regents exam, 20, 58, 174 NIH. See National Institutes of Health No Child Left Behind Act, 54, 57 Noble Foundation, 67 Northeastern University, 155 NRC. See National Research Council NSF. See National Science Foundation NSTA. See National Science Teachers Association

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America’s Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science O Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD), Programme for International Student Assessment, 44, 46–47 OSHA. See U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration P Partnership for the Assessment of Standards-Based Science (PASS), 59 Pedagogical knowledge content, 141–142 general, 142–143 Pendulum, approaches to learning physics using, 117, 126, 128–129 Performance assessment of laboratory learning, 58–59 experiences in New York, 58 experiences in Vermont, 59 Physical manipulation, of the real-world substances or systems, 31 Physical Science Study Committee (PSSC), 22–24 Piaget, Jean, 24 PISA. See Programme for International Student Assessment Polanyi, Michael, 23 Policies influencing high school laboratory experiences, 51–67 influence of curriculum on science instruction, 61–64 role of the scientific community, 64–67 science standards and assessments, 53–61 state high school graduation requirements, 51–52 state requirements for higher education admissions, 52–53 Post-Sputnik science curricula, 22 new approaches included in, 25 Practical skills, developing, 77, 92–93 Preservice science education, uneven qualifications of, 147–148 Principles of learning informing integrated instructional units, 79–81 assessment to support learning, 81 community-centered environments, 81 knowledge-centered environments, 80–81 learner-centered environments, 79 Professional development, partnerships with the scientific community, 154–155 Professional development for laboratory teaching, 149–156 examples of professional development focused on laboratory teaching, 151–156 potential of professional development for improved laboratory teaching, 150–151 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), 44, 46–47

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America’s Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science Project ICAN, 153 Project Physics, 24 Project SEED, 67 PSSC. See Physical Science Study Committee Public understanding of science, in the United States, 43–44 Purposes, clearly communicating, 101 Q Qualifications of preservice science education, uneven, 147–148 of science teachers, uneven, 145–147 Quality of current laboratory experiences, 6, 123–133 comparison with a range of laboratory experiences, 127–131 comparison with instructional design principles, 123–127 isolation from the flow of science instruction, 124–126 lack of focus on clear learning goals, 123–124 lack of reflection and discussion, 127 little integration of science content and science process, 126–127 what students do in laboratory experiences, 132–133 Quantity of laboratory instruction, 118–123 disparities in laboratory experiences, 120–123 science courses and laboratory experiences, 118–120 R Readiness of teachers and schools to provide laboratory experiences, 198–199 Reflection and discussion lack of, 127 ongoing, 102 Remote access to scientific instruments and observations, 32 Representations of natural phenomena, scaffolded, 103–104 Research, development, and implementation of effective laboratory experiences, 9–11, 79–85 assessment of student learning in laboratory experiences, 10, 200 continued learning about laboratory experiences, 10, 200 design of integrated instructional units, 81–82 diverse populations of learners, 10, 200 effective teaching and learning in laboratory experiences, 10, 200 examples of integrated instructional units, 82–85 principles of learning informing integrated instructional units, 79–81 recent developments in, 78–85 school organization for effective laboratory teaching, 10, 200

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America’s Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science RE-SEED. See Retirees Enhancing Science Education through Experiments and Demonstration Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 183–184 Retirees Enhancing Science Education through Experiments and Demonstration, 155 S School organization, for effective laboratory teaching, 10, 200 Schools and Staffing Survey, 177 Schwab, Joseph, 23, 26 Science achievement in secondary school, 44–47 results of international comparative tests, 46–47 results of National Science Achievement Tests, 44–46 in U.S. science education, 44–47 Science content knowledge, 140–141 little integration with science process, 126–127 Science course offerings, 118–119 disparities in laboratory experiences by, 121–122 Science courses and laboratory experiences, 118–120 features of current laboratory experiences, 119–120 science course-taking, 118–119 Science for All Americans, 26 Science instruction, isolation from the flow of, 124–126 Science Laboratory Environment Inventory (SLEI), 96–97 Science standards and assessments, 53–61 hands-on performance assessment of laboratory learning, 58–59 implementing state standards, 57, 60–61 state science assessments and the goals of laboratories, 55–57 state science standards and the goals of laboratories, 54–55 The scientific community, 64–67 providing laboratory facilities and equipment, 65–66 providing laboratory-focused curriculum, 65 providing student internships, 66–67 Scientific issues, making informed decisions about, 1 Scientific reasoning, developing, 76–77, 90–92 Scientific societies, 64 Silliman, Benjamin, 19 Simulations of inaccessible phenomena, structured, 104–105 SLEI. See Science Laboratory Environment Inventory Special education, need for, 49–51 Sputnik. See Post-Sputnik science curricula State high school graduation requirements, 51–52 State requirements for higher education admissions, 52–53 State science assessments and the goals of laboratories, 55–57 State standards, implementation of, 57, 60–61

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America’s Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science State standards and accountability systems, 8–9 conclusions regarding, 9 and the goals of laboratories, 54–55 Structured interactions, with complex phenomena and ideas, 105 Structured simulations, of inaccessible phenomena, 104–105 Student activities included among laboratory experiences, 31–32 access to large databases, 32 enabling by Internet links, 32 interaction with data drawn from the real world, 32 interaction with simulations, 31–32 physical manipulation of the real-world substances or systems, 31 remote access to scientific instruments and observations, 32 Student perceptions of typical laboratory experiences, and interest in science and interest in learning science, 96–97 Student safety, standards of care for, 183–184 Students carrying out laboratory investigations, 1 diverse populations of, 10, 200 eligible for free or reduced-price lunch, disparities in laboratory facilities by proportion of, 179 role of the scientific community in providing internships for, 66–67 Subject matter, enhancing mastery of, 76 Supervision, teachers’ duty of, 182 Support for laboratory teaching, 156–159 scheduling laboratory teaching and learning, 157–159 for teachers with professional development, 156–157 Systemic safety enforcement, lack of, 187–189 T Teacher and school readiness for laboratory experiences, 138–167 summary, 160 supporting laboratory teaching, 156–159 Teacher knowledge for a range of laboratory experiences, 139–145 general pedagogical knowledge, 142–143 knowledge of assessment, 143–144 pedagogical content knowledge, 141–142 science content knowledge, 140–141 Teachers changing roles of, 29–30 knowledge in action, 144–145 preparation for laboratory experiences, 7 uneven qualifications of, 145–147

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America’s Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science Teachers’ capacity to lead laboratory experiences, 139–156 current state of teacher knowledge—preservice education, 145–148 professional development for laboratory teaching, 149–156 Teachers’ duties instruction, 182 maintenance, 182 supervision, 182 “Teaching for understanding,” 157 Teamwork, 98–99 evidence from research on integrated instructional units, 98–99 evidence from research on typical laboratory experiences, 98 Teamwork abilities, developing, 77 ThinkerTools, 81, 84, 94, 97–98, 103–104 13-week science methodology course, 152–153 TIMSS. See Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study Toxic Substances Control Act, 183–184 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 44, 46, 62–63 Trends in U.S. science education, 43–51 high school science and undergraduate science achievement, 47–48 public understanding of science, 43–44 rising enrollments and increasing diversity, 48–51 science achievement in secondary school, 44–47 toward the future, 199–201 Typology of school laboratory experiences, 36 of scientists’ activities, 35 U Understanding the nature of science, 77, 93–95 evidence from research on integrated instructional units, 94–95 evidence from research on typical laboratory experiences, 94 U.S. Census Bureau, 177 U.S. Constitution, 27 U.S. Department of Energy, 64, 154 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 183 U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO), 169, 177 U.S. Geological Survey, 65 U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), 183 V Vanderbilt University, 154 Variety in laboratory experiences, 33–34 Vermont, hands-on performance assessment of laboratory learning experiences in, 59 Virginia Polytechnic Institute (VPI), 65–66, 175

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America’s Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science von Liebig, Justus, 19 VPI. See Virginia Polytechnic Institute W Waterman, Alan, 22 Z Zacharias, Jerrold, 22, 24

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