1. Distinguish between inference and evidence in a newspaper, magazine, journal, or Internet article that addresses an issue related to human impact on cycles of matter in an ecosystem and determine the bias in the article.

  2. Evaluate the impact of personal choices in relation to the cycling of matter within an ecosystem (e.g., impact of automobiles on the carbon cycle, impact on landfills of processed and packaged foods).

Objective 3: Describe how interactions among organisms and their environment help shape ecosystems.

  1. Categorize relationships among living things according to predator-prey, competition, and symbiosis.

  2. Formulate and test a hypothesis specific to the effect of changing one variable upon another in a small ecosystem.

  3. Use data to interpret interactions among biotic and abiotic factors (e.g., pH, temperature, precipitation, populations, diversity) within an ecosystem.

  4. Investigate an ecosystem using methods of science to gather quantitative and qualitative data that describe the ecosystem in detail.

  5. Research and evaluate local and global practices that affect ecosystems.

Science language that students should use:

—predator-prey, symbiosis, competition, ecosystem, carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle,

—oxygen cycle, population, diversity, energy pyramid, consumers, producers,

—limiting factor, competition, decomposers, food chain, biotic, abiotic, community,

—variable, evidence, inference, quantitative, qualitative.

SOURCE: http://www.uen.org/core/core.do?courseNum=3520.

After reviewing the evaluations of the AFT, the Fordham Foundation, and the Council for Basic Education, Archibald (1998, p. 5) proposed that the evaluation of standards needs a “theory of design for content standards that would link purpose, content and organization.” While this remains an unrealized goal, the committee suggests that a first step in this direction is to derive a set of guidelines for standards that can help identify the essential features that standards should possess. It would be very inefficient for each state to develop such a theory of design on its own. Education policy and research organizations could assist states by bringing together experts and state education leaders to develop guidance on the structure of quality science standards. The U.S. Department of Education also



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