14  

Watson Wyatt Worldwide, 2004. This study claims that capital and technological investments will help increase productivity but cannot fully offset labor shortfalls, and vice versa. Fehr et al., 2004, argue that immigration by itself does little to mitigate the fiscal stresses associated with the aging of industrialized societies, but the potential benefits will be even less in the absence of human capital investment in either immigrants or their second-generation offspring.

15  

Porter, 2005.

16  

Kandel and Cromartie, 2004.

17  

Logan et al., 2004.

18  

Logan, 2003.

19  

Fischer and Tienda, 2006.

20  

Logan, 2003. For U.S.-born Hispanics, the averages are slightly lower—28 percent and 50 percent, respectively.

21  

Davis, 2003; Olson and Jordon, 2003.

22  

Ginsburg and Moberg, 2004.

23  

See Fischer and Tienda, 2006.

24  

See Fischer and Tienda, 2006.

25  

This is well dramatized in the documentary, Farmingville, but is being replayed in many other communities that witnessed significant increases in their Hispanic population during the 1990s, such as Danbury, Connecticut and Herndon, Virginia.

26  

Orfield et al., 2004.

27  

Kochhar et al., 2005.

28  

Myers et al., 2002.

29  

Wolff, 2004.

30  

Pew Hispanic Center, 2004.

31  

National Council of La Raza, 2004.

32  

DeSipio, 2006.

33  

de la Garza et al., 1992:88-90, 141, 166-171, 193; Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2002:42-43.

34  

Louis DeSipio, personal communication, November 2004.

35  

Verba et al., 1995.

36  

Suro et al., 2005.

37  

See DeSipio, 2006.

38  

See DeSipio et al., 2003. Small sample sizes in surveys require some caution in generalization.



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