Multiple Origins, Uncertain Destinies

Hispanics and the American Future

Panel on Hispanics in the United States

Marta Tienda and Faith Mitchell, Editors

Committee on Population

Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



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Multiple Origins, Uncertain Destinies: Hispanics and the American Future Multiple Origins, Uncertain Destinies Hispanics and the American Future Panel on Hispanics in the United States Marta Tienda and Faith Mitchell, Editors Committee on Population Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Multiple Origins, Uncertain Destinies: Hispanics and the American Future THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract No. N01-OD-4-2139, TO #123 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Cancer Institute, the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, the National Institute of Mental Health, and the National Institute on Aging of the National Institutes of Health; the U.S. Census Bureau; the National Center for Health Statistics; the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the California HealthCare Foundations, and the California Endowment. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Multiple origins, uncertain destinies : Hispanics and the American future : panel on Hispanics in the United States / Marta Tienda and Faith Mitchell, editors. p. cm. “Committee on Population, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education.” Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-09667-7 (hardcover book)—ISBN 0-309-55087-4 (pdfs) 1. Hispanic Americans—Social conditions—Statistics. 2. Hispanic Americans—Economic conditions—Statistics. 3. Hispanic Americans—Government policy. 4. United States—Ethnic relations—Statistics. 5. United States—Population—Statistics. I. Tienda, Marta. II. Mitchell, Faith. III. National Research Council. Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. E184.S75M85 2006 305.868’073090511—dc22 2006000204 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); http://www.nap.edu. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright 2006 by the National Academies. All rights reserved. Cover credit: Juan Sánchez, Soles y Flores para Liora (1997). Copyright by the artist; used with permission. Suggested citation: National Research Council (2006). Multiple Origins, Uncertain Destinies: Hispanics and the American Future. Panel on Hispanics in the United States. M. Tienda and F. Mitchell, eds. Committee on Population, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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Multiple Origins, Uncertain Destinies: Hispanics and the American Future THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Multiple Origins, Uncertain Destinies: Hispanics and the American Future PANEL ON HISPANICS IN THE UNITED STATES MARTA TIENDA (Chair), Department of Sociology, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs and Office of Population Research, Princeton University LOUIS DESIPIO, Department of Political Science and Chicano/Latino Studies Program, University of California, Irvine JORGE DURAND, Social Anthropology, University of Guadalajara, Mexico JOSÉ J. ESCARCE, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA and RAND, California V. JOSEPH HOTZ, Department of Economics, University of California, Los Angeles NANCY S. LANDALE, Department of Sociology, Pennsylvania State University CORDELIA W. REIMERS, Department of Economics, Hunter College and the Graduate School, City University of New York RUBÉN G. RUMBAUT, Department of Sociology and Center for Research on Immigration, Population, and Public Policy, University of California, Irvine BARBARA SCHNEIDER, Department of Sociology, University of Chicago EDWARD TELLES, Department of Sociology, University of California, Los Angeles STEVEN J. TREJO, Department of Economics, University of Texas at Austin PETER WARD, Department of Sociology, University of Texas at Austin* National Research Council Staff BARNEY COHEN, Director, Committee on Population FAITH MITCHELL, Senior Program Officer ANA-MARIA IGNAT, Senior Program Assistant** ANTHONY S. MANN, Senior Program Assistant AMY GAWAD, Research Associate*** *   Until January 2004 **   Until November 2004 ***   Until December 2004

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Multiple Origins, Uncertain Destinies: Hispanics and the American Future COMMITTEE ON POPULATION KENNETH W. WACHTER (Chair), Department of Demography, University of California, Berkeley ANNE C. CASE, Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton University CHARLES B. KEELY, Walsh School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University DAVID I. KERTZER, Department of Anthropology, Brown University BARTHÉLÉMY KUATE DEFO, Department of Demography, University of Montreal CYNTHIA B. LLOYD, Policy Research Division, Population Council, New York THOMAS W. MERRICK, Center for Global Health, George Washington University RUBÉN G. RUMBAUT, Department of Sociology and Center for Research on Immigration, Population, and Public Policy, University of California, Irvine JAMES W. VAUPEL, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany ROBERT J. WILLIS, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan BARNEY COHEN, Director

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Multiple Origins, Uncertain Destinies: Hispanics and the American Future Acknowledgments With the release of the results of the 2000 census, the growing role of Hispanics in the United States became apparent. Hispanics are now the country’s largest minority. Cognizant of the important implications this demographic change would have for the United States, staff of the National Research Council (NRC) suggested it was an appropriate time for a study that would capture social and economic dimensions of the current situation and provide a baseline for future research. The proposed project would also build on prior NRC reports on the status of minority Americans, including America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences (2001) and A Common Destiny: Blacks and American Society (1989). As a first step in developing a study, the NRC convened a planning meeting in 2001, chaired by Marta Tienda, to clarify key issues regarding Hispanics in the United States. This was followed in 2002 by a meeting on emerging issues in Hispanic health, chaired by E. Richard Brown, which was sponsored by the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research of the National Institutes of Health. That meeting brought together experts in demography, public health, medicine, sociology, psychiatry, and other fields to examine key issues related to Hispanic health and well-being and resulted in the report Emerging Issues in Hispanic Health: Summary of a Workshop (2002). With support from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Cancer Institute, the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, the National Institute of Mental Health, and the

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Multiple Origins, Uncertain Destinies: Hispanics and the American Future National Institute on Aging of the National Institutes of Health; the U.S. Census Bureau; the National Center for Health Statistics; the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the California HealthCare Foundations, and the California Endowment, a major study of Hispanics was begun. This report is the product of that study by a panel of experts convened by the National Academies. This report has a companion volume, Hispanics and the Future of America, which presents the detailed analyses that underlie much of the discussion in this report. We thank first the sponsors of the project. Their recognition of the timeliness of a study on Hispanics made possible what we believe is a far-reaching and provoking look at the nation’s fastest-growing minority population. We thank the following individuals for their workshop presentations and other contributions to this volume: Jorge Del Pinal, Patricia Fernández-Kelly, Claudia Galindo, John Gallegos, Eugene Garcia, Roberto Gonzalez, John Iceland, J. Gerardo Lopez, Maria Lopez-Freeman, Elizabeth Martin, Jeff Morenoff, Chandra Muller, Jeff Passel, Sean Reardon, Catherine Riegle-Crumb, Jerry Valadez, William A. Vega, Bruce Western, and Marilyn Winkleby. We also thank Jeff Evans and Roberto Suro for their contributions to the panel’s thinking and writing, Charles V. Morgan for preparing data for the panel’s analysis, Rona Briere for her editorial contributions, and Yasmin Ramirez for her assistance with the artwork. We very much appreciate Carmen Lomas Garza, Freddy Rodriguez, Ixrael Rodriguez, Juan Sánchez, Nitza Tufiño, Julio Valdez, Patssi Valdez, and Kathy Vargas for permissions to reproduce their artwork. Among the NRC staff, special thanks are due to Barney Cohen, intern Nicole Ganzekaufer, Amy Gawad, Eugenia Grohman, Ana-Maria Ignat, Anthony Mann, Jane Ross, Kirsten Sampson Snyder, and Yvonne Wise. Special thanks are due to the panel members, who not only contributed to the lively and at times intense analysis presented in this volume, but who also authored or coauthored the papers in our companion volume. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments

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Multiple Origins, Uncertain Destinies: Hispanics and the American Future and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Richard D. Alba, Department of Sociology, State University of New York at Albany; Luis A. Diaz, Department of Dermatology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine; Reynolds Farley, Population Studies Center, University of Michigan; Patricia Gándara, School of Education, University of California, Davis; Jennifer L. Hochschild, Government Department, Harvard University; Robert A. Hummer, Population Research Center, University of Texas at Austin; John R. Logan, Spatial Structures in the Social Sciences, Brown University; B. Lindsay Lowell, Institute for the Study of International Migration, Georgetown University; Alba Ortiz, Office of Bilingual Education, University of Texas at Austin; Richard Santos, College of Arts and Sciences, University of New Mexico; Marcelo M. Suárez-Orozco, Immigration Studies, New York University; and Mary C. Waters, Sociology Department, Harvard University. Although the reviewers listed have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions and recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Charles Hirschman, Department of Sociology, University of Washington, and Ron Lee, Department of Demography, University of California, Berkeley. Appointed by the NRC, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. Marta Tienda, Chair, and Faith Mitchell, Study Director Panel on Hispanics in the United States

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Multiple Origins, Uncertain Destinies: Hispanics and the American Future Contents     Executive Summary   3      Hispanic Identity,   4      Social Integration and Mobility,   4      Uncertain Futures,   7 1   Introduction   13      Notes,   16 2   Multiple Origins, Hispanic Portrait   19      Hispanic Roots,   20      A Contemporary Profile,   22      Legal Status,   27      Conclusion,   32      Notes,   33 3   Defining Hispanicity: E Pluribus Unum or E Pluribus Plures?   37      Origins of Hispanic Identity,   38      The Shifting Concept of Race,   40      Español or English?,   45

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Multiple Origins, Uncertain Destinies: Hispanics and the American Future      Conclusion,   50      Notes,   52 4   The Challenges of Integration   57      The Changing Social Contract,   57      Economic Trends,   58      Coming of Age in an Aging Society,   60      Hispanic Dispersal,   64      Paradoxes of Place,   65      Engines of Growth,   66      Uncertain Promises,   67      Political Voice,   68      Conclusion,   73      Notes,   73 5   Realms of Integration: Family, Education, Work, and Health   77      Family and Living Arrangements,   77      Schools and Education,   80      Early Beginnings,   82      Primary and Middle Years,   84      Secondary School and Beyond,   85      Economic Well-Being,   87      Employment and Earnings,   88      Household Income,   93      Poverty and Wealth Among Hispanics,   96      Health Status and Access to Care,   99      Health Status and Behaviors,   100      Access to Quality Care,   103      Conclusion,   106      Notes,   108 6   Uncertain Destinies   115      Diversity, Identity, and Assimilation,   117      Hispanicity as a Panethnic Identity,   117      Sociocultural Transformation,   120      The Costs of Assimilation,   121

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Multiple Origins, Uncertain Destinies: Hispanics and the American Future      Socioeconomic Mobility,   123      An Uncertain Future,   125      Notes,   127     References   129     Appendixes     A   Methods   139 B   Biographical Sketches of Panel Members and Staff   143 C   Contents: Hispanics and the Future of America   149     Index   151

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