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TABLE 1 Estimated Shipments of INF and HLW by all Modes

Shipmentsa

Estimated Quantity (MTHM)

Estimated Flask Shipments

LWR/Magnox/AGR to Sellafield and The Hague

50,000–75,0000

18,500–37,100

Other in France

10,518

>125

Canada–Japan (other than to Sellafield/The Hague)

1100

557

Slovakia

239–380

635–700

Sweden (domestic)

3300

1100

Ukraine

1300

300

United States

2274

3025

HLW from The Hague

520

8

Approximate Totals

~70,000–95,000

24,000–43,000

aEstimate through 2000, worldwide, excluding Russian Federation.

data in this study one could determine that an estimated 18 to 38 million packages of radioactive material are transported each year.

For this presentation a less extensive review was done. The collected data on spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and HLW shipments was obtained by personal contacts and the published literature. Contacts included consignors, carriers, consignees, and competent authorities.

Data show that multiple types of INF have been transported, including light water reactors (LWR), such as pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors; gas cooled reactors, such as magnox, advanced gas reactors (AGR), and graphite reactors; and other types of reactors, including high-power channel reactors (RBMK), Canada deuterium uranium reactors (CANDU), high-temperature reactors (HTR), and fast breeder reactors (FBR). It is estimated that between 24,000 and 35,000 flask shipments have been made. Table 1 summarizes the data collected.

SUMMARY

The thousands of shipments of spent fuel and high-level waste have been performed safely and efficiently. Requirements in place ensure that the robustness of the package provides the first line of defense to materials being released to the environment. To date, there has been no harm to any individual as a result of the contents in the package. This record is not exceeded by the transport of any other hazard class. As the need to transport spent fuel and high-level waste increases, the transport community must be diligent in transporting the materials. All regulations, including package and communication requirements, must be followed.



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