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Ensuring Nuclear and Radiation Safety During the Transport of Radioactive Materials in Russia*

Aleksandr M. Agapov

Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy

In accordance with the Federal Law on the Use of Atomic Energy, the management of nuclear materials and radioactive substances during transport is one of the many elements involved in the atomic energy sector as a whole. Consequently, the transport process lies within the scope of responsibilities of federal agencies dealing with atomic energy safety management and regulation in general.

One important component of the legal and regulatory base with regard to transportation safety is Resolution No. 204 of the Government of the Russian Federation, entitled “On the Competent State Authority for Nuclear and Radiation Safety During the Transport of Nuclear Materials, Radioactive Substances, and Related Products.” According to this resolution, which was issued on March 19, 2001, the functions of the competent state authority are assigned to the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (Minatom). The provisions established by this resolution define the tasks, functions, rights, and responsibilities of the competent state authority.

Transport is one of the potentially dangerous stages in the cycle in which radioactive substances are utilized. Radiation safety is ensured during transport by means of various organizational (administrative) and technical measures.

Transport safety is promoted by the state regulatory system, the Minatom management system, and the system of safety procedures in place at the shipper level.

*  

Translated from the Russian by Kelly Robbins.



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An International Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility: Exploring a Russian Site as a Prototype - Proceedings of an International Workshop Ensuring Nuclear and Radiation Safety During the Transport of Radioactive Materials in Russia* Aleksandr M. Agapov Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy In accordance with the Federal Law on the Use of Atomic Energy, the management of nuclear materials and radioactive substances during transport is one of the many elements involved in the atomic energy sector as a whole. Consequently, the transport process lies within the scope of responsibilities of federal agencies dealing with atomic energy safety management and regulation in general. One important component of the legal and regulatory base with regard to transportation safety is Resolution No. 204 of the Government of the Russian Federation, entitled “On the Competent State Authority for Nuclear and Radiation Safety During the Transport of Nuclear Materials, Radioactive Substances, and Related Products.” According to this resolution, which was issued on March 19, 2001, the functions of the competent state authority are assigned to the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (Minatom). The provisions established by this resolution define the tasks, functions, rights, and responsibilities of the competent state authority. Transport is one of the potentially dangerous stages in the cycle in which radioactive substances are utilized. Radiation safety is ensured during transport by means of various organizational (administrative) and technical measures. Transport safety is promoted by the state regulatory system, the Minatom management system, and the system of safety procedures in place at the shipper level. *   Translated from the Russian by Kelly Robbins.

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An International Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility: Exploring a Russian Site as a Prototype - Proceedings of an International Workshop Radioactive substances are divided into two basic groups according to their uses: cargo from nuclear fuel cycle enterprises, including spent nuclear fuel, fresh (nonirradiated) nuclear fuel, and nuclear materials; shipments of these types of cargoes are under the complete control of Minatom cargo for general industrial use (so-called “isotopic” products) Depending on the properties of the materials being transported (predominantly their degree of radioactivity), the different types of shipments may be divided into five categories characterized by various safety requirements. The bulk of the shipments related to the nuclear fuel cycle are carried out by Minatom enterprises using their own specialized means of transport (trucks and rail cars). Ensuring the safety of shipments is the dominant activity of the Minatom organizations and enterprises involved in transporting radioactive materials. Inherent in the concept of the safety of radioactive material shipments is the condition of all design, operational, technical, organizational, and other elements that play a role in the shipment process, with these elements furthermore understood not to entail any impermissible risk of harm to the lives or health of citizens, the property of individuals, legal entities, municipalities, or the state, the environment, or the lives or health of animals or plants. The goals of ensuring safety in the transport of radioactive materials are as follows: preventing emergencies or unauthorized actions improving the system for response to emergencies and unauthorized actions predicting potential emergencies reducing the risk of emergencies and unauthorized actions reducing the effects of radiation on the population and the environment reducing the level of irradiation received by operating personnel, law enforcement officers, and rescue workers during emergency response, rescue, and transport operations detecting and suppressing unauthorized actions with regard to radioactive materials reducing the severity of the consequences of emergencies and unauthorized actions reducing the time required to carry out emergency response, rescue, and transport operations and to detect and suppress unauthorized actions improving the efficiency of personnel and equipment involved in responding to emergencies and unauthorized actions

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An International Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility: Exploring a Russian Site as a Prototype - Proceedings of an International Workshop TECHNICAL INFRASTRUCTURE FOR TRANSPORTING RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS The safety of shipments of radioactive materials is ensured through the practical implementation of the following basic principles: uniform federal norms and rules governing the procedures for transporting radioactive materials a unified system and rules for certifying casks for shipping radioactive materials uniform rules and methods for testing casks and transport vehicles In order to ensure safety the overwhelming majority of shipments of radioactive materials are carried out with the help of complex and long-lasting pieces of equipment, namely, special transport casks, vehicles, and lifting and loading apparatuses. Minatom currently uses the following in shipping radioactive materials: more than 30 types of transport casks for shipping fresh nuclear fuel some 14 types of casks for shipping spent nuclear fuel about 20 types of casks for shipping fissile materials The late 1970s and early 1980s saw the appearance of several new types of rail cars: the TK-6 for spent fuel from water-moderated water-coated power reactors (VVER-440), the TK-10 for fuel from VVER-1000s, and the TK-11 for fuel from high-power channel reactors (RBMK). Due to the lack of capabilities for reprocessing fuel from RBMK reactors, the TK-11 containers began to be used for shipping spent fuel from BN-350 and BN-600 reactors to the RT-1 plant. The improved TK-13 rail car was created in the mid-1980s for use with spent fuel from VVER-1000s, and the TK-10 container was then taken out of production. A total of 16 TK-6 rail cars were developed and manufactured for shipping spent fuel from VVER-440 reactors. Since 1986, spent fuel from VVER-1000 reactors has been transported using TK-10 and TK-13 rail cars and TUK-10V and TUK-13V transport casks. A total of 7 TK-10 containers and 12 TK-13 containers are currently in use. At the present time the demand for rail cars and casks for shipping VVER-1000 spent fuel is being fully met. The volume of spent fuel shipments could even be increased if necessary if new power units with VVER-1000 reactors were to come online. Plans call for bringing spent fuel from BN reactors to the Mayak Production Association for reprocessing, with the materials to be transported in TK-11 rail freight containers.

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An International Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility: Exploring a Russian Site as a Prototype - Proceedings of an International Workshop The follow two types of casks are used to transport spent nuclear fuel from research reactors for reprocessing: TUK-19 (for fuel rods from VVR-K, VVR-Ts, VVR-2, VVR-S, VVR-M, IRG, IVV, MR, and SM-2 reactors) TUK-32 (for fuel rods from SM-2 and MIR reactors) The TUK-19 and TUK-32 packaging units are in full compliance with the requirements of OPBZ-83 (Basic Rules for Safety and Physical Protection during Nuclear Materials Transportation) and the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1985. These units are classified as type B(U), class 1 for nuclear safety. A reinforced concrete container intended for long-term storage and transport of spent fuel from RBMK reactors is in the final design and certification stage. Since 1994, spent nuclear fuel from atomic submarines and icebreakers has been transported using TK-VG-18 rail freight containers and new-generation TUK-18 radiation-shielded transport casks. Work is under way in Russia to create new transport casks to handle spent fuel from VVER-440, VVER-1000, and RBMK-1000 reactors, as well as those used in atomic submarines and icebreakers. Fresh nuclear fuel (fuel rods and assemblies intended for irradiation in reactors) is shipped in TK-S-type transport casks. All told, more than 50 types of packaging are used, ranging in weight from tens of kilograms (the TK-S35 for fuel rods) to 6.5 metric tons (the TK-S7M for fuel assemblies for the Bilibino Nuclear Power Plant). Practically all of the packaging units have undergone testing in accordance with the requirements of the OPBZ-83 rules, which govern type B packaging, and all of the units have received Minatom certificate permits. An experimental line of packaging units is currently in the development and testing stages. As per Russian and IAEA requirements, type B(U), B(M), and C packaging must be subjected to a series of tests of their performance under emergency transport conditions, specifically, a 9 m fall dynamic destruction in the event of a 500 kg object falling on the packaging unit from a height of 9 m; testing for cracking or breakage resulting from the unit falling onto a spike from the height of 3 m (or a spike falling onto the unit from the same height) the effect on the unit of an all-encompassing external heat field with an average temperature of 800 °C lasting at least 60 minutes collision of the unit with a hard target at a speed of at least 90 m/sec

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An International Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility: Exploring a Russian Site as a Prototype - Proceedings of an International Workshop Experimentally or theoretically confirming that the packaging units are safe in the first three emergency situations listed does not present any serious difficulties for designers, and this confirmation may be obtained using the designers’ existing test facilities or through calculations using generally accepted methodology. Specialists from the Russian Federal Nuclear Center—All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Nuclear Physics have demonstrated the feasibility of conducting such tests at the center’s unique test facilities. The United States is the only other country that possesses an experimental facility with analogous characteristics. Many countries transport radioactive materials, and the total quantity of packaging units is about 4 million. The major shippers include the United States, Canada, Japan, Great Britain, and various developed European countries (see Table 1). Over the past 30 years Russia has amassed a great deal of experience in transporting fissile materials between enterprises involved in the nuclear fuel cycle (see Figure 1). During this time, more than 1600 freight car trips have been completed, covering a total distance of more than 10 million km. Primary among the products carried were uranium and uranium compounds of various degrees of enrichment and physical form. It must be noted that over the entire period in which all types of radioactive materials have been shipped, Russia has never had any incidents or accidents as defined under the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). During the past 10 years, there have been four incidents with low-enriched uranium and ionizing radiation sources, and three of these incidents did not involve any breach in the integrity of the packaging units. If we look at the statistics for work-related injuries, the share of such cases involving radioactive substances comprises a very insignificant fraction of all cases related to dangerous materials. In the United States there were 282 accidents during the period 1971 through TABLE 1 Shippers of Radioactive Materials by Country Country Number of Packaging Units Shipped Annually United States 2,402,429 (domestic shipments only) Canada 612,632 Japan 353,054 Great Britain 242,268 (incomplete data) Italy 205,679 Germany 155,408 France 99,617 TOTAL 4 × 106

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An International Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility: Exploring a Russian Site as a Prototype - Proceedings of an International Workshop FIGURE 1 Dynamics of radioactive material shipments in Russia. (In 2001 about 1800 shipments of radioactive materials were made within the scope of the nuclear fuel cycle.) 1989, most of them involving ionizing radiation sources. None of the U.S. accidents related to the shipment of radioactive materials involved the destruction of packaging units. LAWS AND REGULATIONS Organizing and coordinating the creation of draft federal regulations and rules concerning nuclear and radiation safety during transport of radioactive materials is also a function of the competent state authority. The development of a national legal and regulatory base for ensuring the safety of shipments is in complete accord with current world trends. Past practices were characterized by a closed regime for shipments of most radioactive materials in general and practically 100 percent of nuclear materials not only within the nuclear weapons complex but also with regard to those shipments pertaining to the nuclear fuel cycle. At present we believe that design-based safety, that is, safety resulting from the design of the packaging used for radioactive materials, must be augmented by organizational measures that would minimize the likelihood of transport-related violations involving radioactive materials being shipped. Using the terminology of IAEA rules, one might say that special conditions are used for shipments. This primarily pertains to shipments of those materials and substances that are potentially the most dangerous, such as spent nuclear fuel and plutonium. Special regulatory documents covering procedures for shipments of these types of radioactive materials include strict requirements of an organizational nature. As international design requirements for radioactive materials packaging

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An International Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility: Exploring a Russian Site as a Prototype - Proceedings of an International Workshop have been developed and corresponding IAEA rules have been issued, these requirements have also been introduced in Russia (and formerly in the U.S.S.R.) in the form of state standards (in 1977 for packaging for nonfissile radioactive materials and revised in 1988) and national rules (in 1983 for nuclear materials). These standards and rules were developed on the basis of IAEA rules. Russia is now preparing to introduce new national rules in full technical (design) compliance with the new IAEA rules (document ST-1/TS-R-1, 1996/2000 editions). These new national rules will cover all types of radioactive materials (fissile and nonfissile). The transport of radioactive materials is governed by the following regulatory documents: Rules for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Substances (PBTRV-73), specifically in accord with the provisions of the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 1996 edition, Requirements ST-1 (hereafter referred to as “Requirements ST-1”) Basic Rules of Safety and Physical Protection in the Transport of Nuclear Materials (OPBZ-83), which do not contradict the provisions of Requirements ST-1 Radiation Safety Norms (NRB-99) Basic Sanitary Rules for Ensuring Radiation Safety (OSPORB-99) Basic Industrial Rules of Nuclear Safety in the Use, Processing, Storage, and Transport of Hazardous Nuclear Fissile Materials (PBYa-06-00-96) Provision on Procedures for the Shipment of Fissile Nuclear Materials by Air Transport in the Russian Federation (PVPYaDM-93), which do not contradict the provisions of Requirements ST-1 Handbook on the Shipment of Special Cargo by Rail and Truck Transport (RSP-86), which does not contradict the provisions of Requirements ST-1 Instructions on the Shipment of Special Cargo (ISP) Rules for the Shipment of Dangerous Cargo by Truck Transport Accident reference cards Other regulatory documentation, for example, OST-95 10297-95 (Spent Fuel Assemblies from Nuclear Research Reactors: General Requirements for Shipment) and OST-95 745-95 (Spent Fuel Assemblies from VVER-Type Nuclear Power Reactors: General Requirements for Shipment to Reprocessing Plants) Recommendations from Requirements ST-1 LICENSING AND CERTIFICATION OF ACTIVITIES RELATED TO THE TRANSPORT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS The basic provisions governing the safe management of nuclear materials are set forth in Russian legislation, currently active federal norms for the trans-

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An International Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility: Exploring a Russian Site as a Prototype - Proceedings of an International Workshop port of radioactive materials, and regulatory documents from the Russian Federal Inspectorate for Nuclear and Radiation Safety (Gosatomnadzor). One of the main requirements involves mandatory licensing for the activities of enterprises engaged in the design, manufacture, construction, installation, and operation of facilities and equipment (see Figure 2). With regard to the handling of radioactive materials during transport, the licensing system that has been created in the Russian Federation ensures compliance with most of the requirements that have been established for this sort of activity. The basis for the licensing requirements used by the above-listed federal executive-branch agencies generally complement one another, while the practice of independent expert reviews as instituted by Gosatomnadzor also significantly reduces the risk that licensees (enterprises) may fail to meet the requirements. All types of work associated with the management of radioactive materials during transport are subject to licensing. The system for certification of facilities, goods, and technologies (FGT) that has been put in place in Russia jointly by Minatom, Gosatomnadzor, and the FIGURE 2 Outline of the licensing process.

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An International Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility: Exploring a Russian Site as a Prototype - Proceedings of an International Workshop Russian State Committee for Standardization and Metrology (Gosstandart) supplements the above-described licensing system with regard to compliance by Russian enterprises with requirements for equipment and technologies as generally accepted in international and domestic practice. The FGT certification system allows Minatom and Gosatomnadzor to jointly regulate the process of harmonizing international and domestic requirements and to standardize in practice the modern equipment and technologies used in managing radioactive materials. All shipments of nuclear materials and radioactive substances within the territory of the Russian Federation must be and are made only upon the issuance of a permit certificate regarding the design and movement of the transport cask with the materials or substances. At this time, in order to transport nuclear materials or radioactive substances in the Russian Federation, it is necessary to obtain the permit certificates from Minatom as follows: regarding the type of radioactive substance regarding the packaging design (type A, IP-2, IP-3, AF, III, B(U), B(U)F, B(M), B(M)F regarding the shipment regarding shipment under special conditions In order to improve efforts to organize the safe transport of shipping casks with nuclear and radioactive materials, by order of the ministry (No. 192, dated July 8, 1992) the Temporary Provision on Procedures for the Issuance of Permit Certificates for Radioactive Substances of a Certain Type and for the Design and Transport of Packaging Containing Radioactive Substances (PVSR-92) was put into effect. According to this provision, functions related to the preparation of draft permit certificates are performed by the following operational agencies: Federal State Unitary Enterprise, Minatom Emergency Technology Center; Federal State Unitary Enterprise, All-Regional Association Isotope; and the Russian Federal Nuclear Center, All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Technical Physics: with regard to preparation of draft permit certificates (for radioactive substances of a certain type, excluding fissile substances) Head Institute, All-Russian Design and Scientific Research Institute of Complex Energy Technology and the Russian Federal Nuclear Center, All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics: with regard to preparation of draft permit certificates (for fissile substances of a certain type) Department of Nuclear Safety of the Russian State Scientific Center, Institute of Physics and Power Engineering: with regard to expert review of measures and conditions for nuclear safety and issuance of corresponding conclusions for preparation of permit certificates (for nuclear safety procedures)

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An International Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility: Exploring a Russian Site as a Prototype - Proceedings of an International Workshop On the instructions of Minatom, an industry-wide transport packaging database has been developed that will make it possible to monitor and account for the permit certificates issued by the competent state agency as well as current information on nuclear safety and expert conclusions reached by the operational agencies in preparing their permit drafts. This information system will facilitate accounting and control regarding the location and movement of packaging units as well as their technical condition. All of this will facilitate the efficient preparation of documents (certificates) regarding the technical status and availability of packaging units as well as tracking of the life cycle of the certificate from the moment of its confirmation by means of references to corresponding notices. The system also offers quick navigation between linked documents, for instance from the certificate to the nuclear safety ruling, the accident card, the notification, and other documents. ENSURING THE SAFETY OF SHIPMENTS OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS The Federal State Unitary Enterprise Atomspetstrans is responsible for operational control and organization of shipments of radioactive materials. The basic tasks of Atomspetstrans include the following: organizing shipments of radioactive materials cooperating with interested organizations on matters of physical protection of radioactive materials on a contractual basis monitoring the validity dates of permit certificates regarding packaging design and transport coordinating with the client regarding shipment schedules and conditions and entering all information obtained into the operational database checking that the declared cargo corresponds to the information on the accident card and is appropriate for the type of transport that has been arranged (presence and type of freight rail cars, auxiliary rail cars, and guards) checking permit documents regarding the transport vehicles and shipping containers against the industry-wide database by type of transport vehicle, container, operating certificate, and other control documents in order to determine the feasibility of their use in the given transport operation monitoring the location and movement of empty transport vehicles and shipping containers and obtaining from railway authorities and regional officials confirmation of their arrival at the intended destination Up to now Russia has experienced no accidents or serious incidents involving the transport of nuclear materials or, in particular, of spent fuel. In order to be able to respond quickly and efficiently in the event of a transport accident during the shipment of nuclear materials, enterprises involved in such shipments as well as state agencies have developed plans to prevent

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An International Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility: Exploring a Russian Site as a Prototype - Proceedings of an International Workshop accidents and eliminate their potential consequences. These plans are submitted to the federal and regional authorities, and shippers and freight carriers have their own action plans and preparedness procedures in the event of an accident. Accident response cards are also prepared for each type of cargo. In order to implement accident prevention and response plans Russia has created a system of regional Emergency Technology Centers (ETCs) under the auspices of Minatom. These centers constantly monitor shipments of nuclear materials within their assigned territories and respond quickly in case of any emergency. ETC personnel are trained in accident response and have the appropriate equipment and technical capabilities at their disposal. The major enterprises involved in the nuclear fuel cycle also have special emergency brigades. Forces and resources from the Ministry of Emergency Situations may also be deployed if needed to deal with the consequences of an accident. With the aim of promoting a unified technical policy on crisis management, a Crisis Situation Center has also been created within the framework of Minatom’s existing system for monitoring the security of enterprises and organizations. Initial determination of the degree of danger presented by a radiation accident is made by the individual escorting the shipment, in accordance with the accident card that accompanies any shipment of radioactive material. This same individual is also responsible for undertaking first-response efforts regarding the accident. The system for monitoring cargo movements throughout the territory of the Russian Federation provides the emergency technology infrastructure for the shipments. This system is responsible for maintaining forces and resources in constant readiness to prevent and eliminate the consequences of potential emergencies arising during the transport process. The system is based on six federal, full-time, professional emergency rescue and accident response units that remain on constant alert. These units are certified by the Interagency Commission to conduct accident response, rescue, and other urgent missions in emergency situations. The system also includes Minatom-certified reserve emergency rescue and accident response units based at the various nuclear-sector organizations involved. The Federal State Unitary Enterprise Minatom ETC is an element of the industry-wide subsystem of the Russian System for Emergency Prevention and Response. ETC is one of six emergency technology centers under the auspices of Minatom. In accordance with Resolution No. 924 of the Government of the Russian Federation dated August 3, 1996, ETC is listed among the federal rapid response forces of the Russian System for Emergency Prevention and Response. The Monitoring and Dispatch Service is a full-time structural unit of the professional emergency response and rescue unit of Minatom’s ETC. Its basic activities are

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An International Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility: Exploring a Russian Site as a Prototype - Proceedings of an International Workshop organizing efforts, within the scope of its competency, to ensure rapid notification of response and rescue personnel from the enterprise in the event of an emergency or change in status associated with radiation organizing notification of regional emergency response and rescue units regarding shipments of nuclear materials and radioactive substances in their assigned territories exchanging operational information with the dispatch and monitoring services of enterprises involved in the transport of nuclear materials and radioactive substances within Russian territory as well as with nuclear-hazard enterprises, the main administrations of the Ministry of Emergency Situations, and local governments in the northwestern region of Russia As part of overall efforts to provide scientific and technical support for the response system for accidents involving the transport of radioactive materials, the Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of Problems of the Safe Development of Nuclear Power operates a Technical Crisis Center, the tasks of which include assessing the radiological consequences of accidents involving the transport of radioactive materials developing recommendations on protecting personnel, the general population, and the environment Role-playing games and command staff training exercises are the most effective methods for addressing issues related to the training of both specialists and government officials on appropriate actions to take in emergency situations. The primary objective of the training exercises with regard to ensuring the safe transport of radioactive materials is to improve the mechanism for cooperation among the ministries, agencies, and organizations involved in these activities. Among the major exercises that have been conducted are Urals 99, in which participants practiced actions to eliminate the consequences of an accident during the shipment of spent nuclear fuel to the Mayak Production Association; the command staff exercises held in the Southern Federal District in March 2002; and the exercises held at the Mining-Chemical Complex and the Novosibirsk Chemical Concentrates Plant. All of these exercises involved the participation of officials from the emergency services of Minatom and various regions and enterprises as well as emergency units and emergency technology centers. The intensified threat from terrorist organizations of various types, including the threat of nuclear terrorism, has made it imperative to improve the physical protection of industrial facilities that present a nuclear or radiation risk, with special attention required for the problem of increasing the security of shipments of nuclear materials. Given the global nature of these threats, Minatom and the U.S. Department of Energy have been working together since 1996 to create an automated sys-

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An International Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility: Exploring a Russian Site as a Prototype - Proceedings of an International Workshop tem for ensuring the safety of shipments of special nuclear materials, with these efforts being a part of the international cooperation between these agencies to improve the overall physical protection, accounting, and control of nuclear materials. Based on the results of an analysis of situational models, the system has subsystems for monitoring the status of the physical protection of nuclear materials during transport and the location of the transport vehicles detecting violations (unauthorized actions with regard to nuclear materials during transport) restricting access to nuclear materials communications and control emergency response in the event of an attempted attack aimed at seizing nuclear materials or conducting an act of sabotage USING THE SCIENTIFIC POTENTIAL OF THE RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES One of the most fundamental questions with respect to the management of nuclear materials in general and spent nuclear fuel in particular relates to safety. The scientific potential of the institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) makes it possible to carry out work in this area according to modern standards. The RAS has participated directly in the development of the Federal Targeted Program for Russia’s Nuclear and Radiation Safety; in the comprehensive analysis of radiation and chemical risks to the Russian population; in an assessment of risks to personnel, the population, and the environment during various stages in the management of spent fuel; and in other important safety-related efforts. RAS institutes are also carrying out practical applied work in the area of spent fuel and radioactive waste management. In particular, the Institute of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy, and Geochemistry and the Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry are developing plans for burial sites in geological formations and evaluating the raw material potential of the nuclear fuel cycle. The Institute of Problems of the Safe Development of Nuclear Power is developing modern safety criteria and preparing a comprehensive analysis of the safety of atomic power and related industries. CONCLUSIONS The 50 years of experience in transporting nuclear materials and radioactive substances within the Russian Federation and abroad proves the effectiveness of the system for ensuring nuclear and radiation security in handling such ship-

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An International Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility: Exploring a Russian Site as a Prototype - Proceedings of an International Workshop ments. The organizational and technical measures being taken by Minatom to improve the safety of radioactive material shipments, along with the common practice of safe shipments, provide grounds for concluding that the shipment system on the whole is effective. During 2001, approximately 1800 shipments were made within the framework of the nuclear fuel cycle. On average there are six or seven trains carrying radioactive materials on the rails each day. New and complex tasks with regard to transport safety have arisen in connection with manifestations of terrorism. Top priority objectives in this regard include completing work on developing and deploying the automated system for ensuring the safety of shipments of special nuclear materials completing the creation of a modern material-technical base for emergency response and rescue units and emergency technology centers and resolving issues related to the provision of social benefits for their personnel designing, testing, certifying, and manufacturing new standardized transport vehicles and packaging units in order to modernize the existing fleet Regulatory activity represents another problem associated with the transport of radioactive materials. The main areas for improvement with regard to the above-mentioned Russian regulatory documents pertain to putting the draft Rules for Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials into effect as quickly as possible developing and putting into effect the draft Sanitary Rules for Ensuring Radiation Safety for the Population and Personnel during Transport of Radioactive Materials (Substances) When the Federal Law on Technical Regulation goes into effect in 2003, it will bring with it a need for profound analysis of the entire regulatory and legal base governing matters of transport safety. Following are the main questions regarding the transport of radioactive materials that must be addressed: development of a technical regulation for the transport of radioactive materials improvement of the quality control system regarding organizations involved in transporting radioactive materials enhancement of the system for certification of facilities, goods, and technologies related to shipments of radioactive materials

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