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ments under natural conditions, coefficients for diffusion and sorption and desorption rates have been obtained for complex radioactive solutions formed in the rock environment.

An analysis of the many years of field research regarding physical processes that determine the safety of underground isolation has made it possible to propose a new approach for determining the suitability of geologic sites for the long-term underground storage and burial of radioactive wastes and spent nuclear fuel, an approach based on the use of criteria for determining the risk that radionuclides exceeding maximum permissible concentration levels will migrate into the active water exchange zone. The new approach enables comparison of geological sites based on the prediction of their isolation characteristics dynamics during the required period of the radioactive waste isolation, according to the radioactive waste quantity and composition and the enclosing rock massif behavior. The experience of the organization that engaged in rock massif status investigations for more than 40 years for the ecologically dangerous Minatom facility placement is at the heart of this approach.

NOTES

1.  

The zone is most disturbed from surface to depth (40–100 meters). The depth is 4 meters at some points and 100 meters at others, and fracturing decreases with depth.

2.  

The basis for the ranking system is an ecological safety comparison for the environment taking into account the radioactive waste placement at the sites and different behavior of the rock massifs.

3.  

Fracturing zones or migration paths for the groundwater; radionuclides can only exit the rock through geologic violations.

4.  

This is the maximum investigation temperature; underground storage is not planned at a temperature high enough to essentially change a hydro-geological situation.



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