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is returned to the surface. Additional buffer material is placed over the container up to the emplacement tunnel floor. Although all emplacement work in an emplacement tunnel is completed, the emplacement tunnel may be kept open without backfill during the operation period of 50 to 100 years for monitored retrieval operation. After the designed monitored-retrieval operation, all access and deposition tunnels will be backfilled with a mixture of crushed rock and bentonite and an especially designed concrete bulkhead is constructed at the tunnel entrance to complete sealing for repository closure.

The monitored retrieval operation program will monitor for unexpected radioactivity and provide warning for the underground and surface facilities. These monitoring systems should sample the air at locations throughout the repository for radionuclides and provide an alarm to allow for control measures to be initiated. Control of inadvertent radionuclide release is, under normal operating conditions, achieved by the use and activation of the high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration system located at the surface facilities of the upcast emplacement shaft. Decommissioning and closure time and processes of the base-case repository will be studied further with cost and safety analyses


This project has been carried out under the Nuclear Research and Development Program of the Ministry of Science and Technology of Korea.



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C. H. Kang, et al. High-Level Radwaste Disposal Technology Development—Geological Disposal System Development, KAERI/RR-2013/99. South Korea: Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 2000.


J. W. Choi, W. I. Koh, and C. H. Kang. Reference spent fuel and its characteristics for a deep geological repository concept development. Journal of the Korean Nuclear Society 31(6) (1999).


Y. Kwon, S. Kang, J. W. Choi, and C. H. Kang. Structural analysis for the determination of design variables of spent nuclear fuel disposal canister. KSME International Journal 13(3)(2001): 327–338.

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