Space Studies Board Annual Report 2004

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

The National Academies Press
Washington, D.C.
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Space Studies Board Annual Report 2004 Space Studies Board Annual Report 2004 NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES The National Academies Press Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Space Studies Board Annual Report 2004 The Space Studies Board is a unit of the National Research Council, which serves as an independent advisor to the federal government on scientific and technical questions of national importance. The National Research Council, jointly administered by the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine, brings the resources of the entire scientific and technical community to bear through its volunteer advisory committees. Support for the work of the Space Studies Board and its committees and task groups was provided by National Aeronautics and Space Administration Contract NASW-01001, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Contract DG133R04CQ0009, and National Science Foundation Grants ATM-0109283 and AST-0075757.

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Space Studies Board Annual Report 2004 From the Chair In the foreword for the 2003 Annual Report of the Space Studies Board, we predicted that 2004 would be yet another pivotal year for the space program. Indeed, 2004 saw the release of a new presidential policy for NASA, and for human spaceflight in particular, and the beginning of the implementation of that policy. All the advice given, decisions made, and priorities established as a consequence will determine the direction of the space program for decades to come. The Space Studies Board and its committees and special task groups have been very active during the year, as is documented in this annual report, attempting to ensure that the perspective of the science community is heard as the new space vision is implemented. The principal issue was identified early in the year. There was a certain excitement that the human spaceflight program would at last be revitalized, but the response was tempered by the view that to make this a true exploration program it would need to be founded on and pursued for science, with attention to optimum choices for the use of humans and robots. Enthusiasm for the vision was tempered also by the recognition that space science and Earth science from space have flourished in recent years, and that this success should not be allowed to diminish. We have, through our reports and our guidance, attempted to encourage NASA to recognize the opportunity that exists to alter forever our understanding of the universe in which we live through a broadly defined exploration program and to continue the inevitable march of this civilization into space. The same vigilance will be required in 2005, to encourage the nation to develop a space program worthy of the vast opportunities for discovery and for increased knowledge that lie before us. L.A. Fisk Chair Space Studies Board

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Space Studies Board Annual Report 2004 Contents     From the Chair   iii 1   Charter and Organization of the Board   1 2   Activities and Membership   6 3   Summaries of Major Reports   37     3.1  Assessment of Options for Extending the Life of the Hubble Space Telescope: Final Report,   37     3.2  Exploration of the Outer Heliosphere and the Local Interstellar Medium: A Workshop Report,   43     3.3  Issues and Opportunities Regarding the U.S. Space Program: A Summary Report of a Workshop on National Space Policy,   46     3.4  Plasma Physics of the Local Cosmos,   52     3.5  Solar and Space Physics and Its Role in Space Exploration,   55     3.6  Utilization of Operational Environmental Satellite Data: Ensuring Readiness for 2010 and Beyond,   59 4   Short Reports   65     4.1  Assessment of Options for Extending the Life of the Hubble Space Telescope: Letter Report,   65     4.2  Review of Science Requirements for the Terrestrial Planet Finder: Letter Report,   70 5   Congressional Testimony   75     5.1  The President’s Vision for Space Exploration: Perspectives from a Recent NRC Workshop on National Space Policy,   75 6   Cumulative Bibliography   79

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Space Studies Board Annual Report 2004 Space Studies Board Chairs Lloyd V. Berkner, Graduate Research Center, Dallas, Texas, 1958–1962 Harry H. Hess, Princeton University, 1962–1969 Charles H. Townes, University of California at Berkeley, 1970–1973 Richard M. Goody, Harvard University, 1974–1976 A.G.W. Cameron, Harvard College Observatory, 1977–1981 Thomas M. Donahue, University of Michigan, 1982–1988 Louis J. Lanzerotti, American Telephone & Telegraph Co., Bell Laboratories, 1989–1994 Claude R. Canizares, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1994–2000 John H. McElroy, University of Texas at Arlington (retired), 2000–2003 Lennard A. Fisk, University of Michigan, 2003–