workers. The result was mistrust that contributed to the building being closed for 13 years. If New York officials had instituted something similar to this report’s recommendations regarding an analytic deliberative process, many of the problems experienced in Binghamton could have been avoided. Because the Binghamton State Office Building housed state agencies, closing it had few economic consequences; it could remain closed for so long without severe disruption. That would not be true for the contamination of a major American airport, and the need to reopen would be more pressing.


Alexander, L. 1998. Decontaminating Civilian Facilities: Biological Agents and Toxins. IDA Paper P-3365. Alexandria, Virginia: Institute for Defense Analyses.

Clarke, L. 1989. Acceptable Risk? Making Decisions in a Toxic Environment. Berkeley, California: University of California Press.

Manchee, R.J., and D.P. Stewart. 1988. The decontamination of Gruinard Island. Chemistry in Britain July: 690-692.

Manchee, R.J., M.G. Broster, A.J. Stagg, and S.H. Hibbs. 1994. Formaldehyde solution effectively inactivates spores of Bacillus anthracis on the Scottish Island of Gruinard. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 60(11): 4167-4171.

Pearson, G.S. 1990. Gruinard Island returns to civil use. The ASA Newsletter 5.

Willis, E.A. 2002. Landscape with dead sheep: what they did to Gruinard Island. Medicine, Conflict and Survival 18(2): 199-210.

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001

Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement