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REFERENCES Abkowitz, M., and G. F. List. 1986. Hazardous Materials Transportation: Commodity Flow and Incident Information Systems. Final report to Office of Technology Assessment, U.S. Congress, January. Booz-Allen & Hamilton. 1987. Economic Impact of Hydrocarbon Vapor Emission Control on Tank Barges. Report commissioned by the American Waterways Operators, Inc., Bethesda, Maryland, May 18. Booz-Allen & Hamilton. 1987b. Impact of Marine Hydrocarbon Vapor Emissions on Air Quality. Report commissioned by the American Waterways Operators, Inc., Bethesda, Maryland, July 10. Canevari, G. P. 1980. Composition and method for suppressing vapor loss of volatile hydrocarbons. U.S. patent no. 4-326-986 (4/27/82~ ; 4-235-743 (11/25/80~ ; 4-386-052 (5/31/831. Assignee Exxon Research and Engineering Co., Florham Park, New Jersey. Canevari, G. P., and W. M. Cooper, Jr. 1974. Foamed vapor barrier. U.S. patent no. 3-850-206 (11/26/74~. Assignee: Exxon Research and Engineering Co., Florham Park, New Jersey. Exxon Marine. From vol. 26, no. 2, 1981, reprinted and updated in the Tanker Register, 1987. London: Clarkson & Co. Hanzevak, K. M., and W. A. Stone. 1979. Marine Hydrocarbon Vapor Losses and Emissions. Exxon Engineering. Florham Park, New Jersey. (Declassified 1984.) Industrial Risk Insurers. 1984. General Recommendations for Spacing. 484-2M, August 1. Hartford, Connecticut. International Chamber of Shipping, Oil Companies International Marine Forum, and International Association of Ports and Harbours. 1986. International Safety Guide to Oil Tankers and Terminals. 2d ed. London: Witherby & Co. International Maritime Organization. 1984. Standards for the design, testing, and locating of devices to prevent the passage of flame into cargo tanks in oil tankers. Maritime Safety Committee Circular 373, April 12. London: IMO. Johnson, J. E., A. C. Rogers, and R. L. Bass III. 1981. An Assessment of Shipboard Tank Level Indicating Systems. Final report, Maritime Administration contract no. MA-78-SAC-3067. San Antonio: Southwest Research Institute. Kilby, J. L. 1968. Flare systems explosions. In Loss Prevention, vol. 2. New York: American Institute of Chemical Engineers. 143

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144 Naujokas, A. A. 1985. Spontaneous combustion of carbon beds. Plant/Operations Progress 4~2~:120-126. National Transportation Safety Board. May 27, 1987. Marine Accident Report--Explosion Aboard the U.S. Tank Barge III 103, Pascagoula Miss., July 31, 1986. Washington, D.C.: National Transportation Safety Board. Report No. NTSB/MAR-87-05. Peters, M. S., and K. D. Timmerhaus. 1968. Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers. 2d ed, p. 107. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. Rusin, M. 1979. Pipeline Transport of Highly Volatile Liquids. Research study no. 014. Washington, D.C.: American Petroleum Institute. Russo, J. E. 1987. The human cost: A comment on Dardis. Journal of Consumer Policy 10:89-92. Scott Environmental Technology, Inc. 1981. Inventory of Marine Operations Within the California Coastal Waters. Plumsteadville, Pennsylvania. Uhlin, R. C. 1984. Physical loss of cargo from crude oil tankers. Speech given at Institute of Petroleum meeting, "Oil Loss Control in the Petroleum Industry," October 10-11, London. United Technical Design, Inc. (UTD). 1987. Scoping Quality Cost Estimate for Marine Vapor Control Systems. Unpublished study. Available from the Marine Board, National Research Council. Washington, D.C. U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment (OTA). 1986. Transporta- tion of Hazardous Materials. Report no. OTA-SET-304. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. U.S. Department of Transportation. 1975. A Manual for the Safe Handling of Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Hazardous Products. Coast Guard document No. CG-174. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. U.S. Department of Transportation. 1984. Annual Report on Pipeline Safety, Materials Transportation Bureau. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. U.S. Department of Transportation. 1986. Tank barges Hol lywood 1015 and Hol lywood 1016 - - Investigation into the explosion, fire and sinking at Vistron barge dock, Green Lake, Texas, on 1 November 1983 with minor personnel injuries. Corpus Christi, Texas: Marine Safety Office, U.S. Coast Guard. . Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1985. Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors. 4th ea., vol. 1 (AP-42~. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1986. Preliminary background document for the assessment of marine terminal and vessel activities, potential effects on air quality and NSR/PSD/NSPS regulations, controls, and economics. Washington, D.C.: EPA. Wagenear, W. A. 1986 . The cause of impossible accidents. Invited speech given on the occasion of the sixth Duijker Lecture, March 18, University of Leiden, The Netherlands.