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APPENDIX D . . .. . .. CALCULATIONS OF VESSEL EMISSIONS CRUDE OIL EMISSIONS 1. The average specific gravity of crude oil is about 0.87 g/cc. Density is calculated to be 3.62 tons/1,000 gal. 2. From the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): ship loading, f = 0.61; barge loading, f - 1.0; and ballasting, f = 1.2. 3. Foreign Loading Emissions Import emissions = 0. Export emissions = (20,000 tons/yr/3.62 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.61 lb/1,000 gal c 3,370 lb/yr. . 4. Domestic Loading Emissions Tankship emissions = (135,000,000 tons/yr/3.62 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.61 - 22,748,619 lb/yr. = (45,800,000 tons/yr/3.62 tons/1,000 gal) x 1.0 = 12,652,934 lb/yr. Barge emissions 5. Ballasting emissions: Oil will be carried in oil or oil/product tankers. For foreign vessels' the combined total of these two groups has only 5.8 percent of the deadweight tons (dwt) of these vessels without equipment that would prevent ballasting emissions. For U.S. vessels, that figure is 4.6 percent. 6. Foreign Ballasting Emissions Import emissions = (171,640,000 tons/yr/3.62 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.058 x 0.30 cargo tank ballast x 1.1 Export emissions = 0. lb/1,000 gal = 907,510 lb/yr. :222

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223 7. Domestic Ballasting Emissions Tankship emissions = (135,000,000 tons/yr/3.62 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.046 x 0.30 cargo tank ballast x 1.1 lb/l,OOO gal = 566,105 lb/yr. Barge emissions = 0. . 8. Lightering Emissions Emissions = (20,000,000 tons/yr/3.62 tons/1,000 gal) x 1.0 lb/l,OOO gal = 5,524,862 lb/yr. This assumes that cargo is lightered into barges. Emissions would be somewhat lower for cargo lightered into ships. GASOLINE EMI S S IONS 1. Density = 0.75 g/cc - 3.125 tons/1,000 gal. 2. From EPA: ship loading, f - 1.8; barge loading, f - 3.4; ballasting, f = 0.8. 3. Foreign Loading Emissions Import emissions = 0. Export emissions = (440,000 tons/yr/3.125 tons/1,000 gal) x 1.8 lb/l,OOO gal = 253,440 lb/yr. 4. Domestic Loading Emissions Tankship emissions = (17 ,400, OOO tons/yr/3 .125 tons/1, OOO gal) x 1.8 = 10,022, 400 lb/yr. = (59,610,000 tons/yr/3.125 tons/1,000 gal) x 3.4 = 64,855,680 lb/yr. Barge emissions 5. Ballasting emissions for gasoline and other chemicals: These products may be carried in product only or oil/product carriers. About 25 percent of the foreign fleet does not have equipment to prevent emissions, and 21 percent of the U.S. fleet does not have such equipment. These figures are used for all other products as well as gasoline. 6. Foreign Ballasting Emissions Import emissions a (12 ~ 550 ~ 000 tons/yr/3.125 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.253 x 0.30 cargo tank ballast x O. 8 lb/1, OOO gal = 243,852 lb/yr. Export emissions = 0.

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224 . Domestic Ballasting Emissions Tankship emissions = (17,400,000 torls/yr/3.125 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.21 x 0.30 cargo tank ballast x 0.8 lb/1,000 gal = 280,627 lb/yr. CRUDE TAR, OIL AND GAS PRODUCT EMISSIONS 1. Density (approx.) = 0.73 g/cc = 3.04 tons/1,000 gal. 2. Estimated from EPA and Scott (see Tables 1-1 and 1-2), f = 0. for all cases. 5 . Foreign Loading Emissions Import emissions = 0. Export emissions = (436,000 tons/yr/3.04 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.5 lb/1,000 gal = 71,711 lb/yr. 4. Domestic Loading Emissions Tankship emissions = (119,000 tons/yr/3.04 tons/1,000 gal) x 0 lb/1,000 gal = 19,572 lb/yr. = (1,168,000 tons/yr/3.04 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.5 lb/1,000 gal = 192,105 lb/yr. Barge emissions r A. . .5 Foreign Ballasting Emissions Import emissions - (405,000 tons/yr/3.04 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.253 x 0.30 cargo tank ballast x 0.5 lb/1,000 gal = 5,068 lb/yr. Export emissions = 0. 6. Domestic Ballasting Emissions Tankship emissions = (119,000 tons/yr/3.04 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.21 x 0.30 cargo tank ballast x 0.5 lb/1,000 gal = 1,233 lb/yr. = 0. Barge emissions EMISSIONS FROM ALCOHOLS 1. Density (approx.) = 0.83 g/cc = 3.46 tons/1,000 gal. 2. From Scott (see Table 1-2), f = 0.005 for all cases.

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. 225 3. Foreign Loading Emissions Import emissions = 0. Export emissions = (913~000 tons/yr/3.46 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.005 lb/1,000 gal = 1,319 lb/yr. 4. Domestic Loading Emissions Tankship emissions = (478,000 tons/yr/3.46 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.005 = 690 lb/yr. Barge emissions = (3,810,000 tons/yr/3.46 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.005 = 5,506 lb/yr. 5. Foreign Ballasting Emissions Import emissions = (1,036,000 tons/yr/3.46 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.253 x 0.30 cargo tank ballast x 0.005 Export emissions = 0. lb/1,000 gal = 114 lb/yr. 6. Domestic Ballasting Emissions Tankship emissions = (478,000 tons/yr/3.46 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.21 x 0.30 cargo tank ballast x 0.005 lb/1,000 gal = 44 lb/yr. BASIC CHEMICALS EMISSIONS Density (approx.) = 0.9 g/cc = 3.75 tons/1,000 gal. 2. From Scott, f = 0.005 for all cases. 3. Foreign Loading Emissions Import emissions = 0. Export emissions = (10,689,000 tons/yr/3.75 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.005 lb/1,000 gal = 14,252 lb/yr. 4. Domestic Loading Emissions Tankship emissions = (2,510,000 tons/yr/3.75 tons/1,000 gal) Barge emissions x 0.005 - 3,347 lb/yr. = (20,440,000 tons/yr/3.75 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.005 = 27,253 lb/yr.

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226 5. Foreign Ballasting Emissions Import emissions = (16,197,000 tons/yr/3.75 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.253 x 0.30 cargo tank ballast x 0.005 lb/1,000 gal = 1,639 lb/yr. Export Emissions = 0. 6. Domestic Ballasting Emissions Tankship emissions = (2, 510, 000 tons/yr/3 .75 tons/1, 000 gal) x 0.21 x 0.30 cargo tank ballast x 0.005 lb/1,000 gal = 211 lb/yr. Barge emissions = 0. EMISSIONS FROM MISCELLANEOUS CHEMICALS 1. Density (approx.) = 0.9 = 3.75 tons/1,000 gal. 2. From Scott, f = 0.005 for all cases. Foreign Loading Emissions Import emissions = 0. Export emissions = (942,000 tons/yr/3.75 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.005 lb/1,000 gal - 1,256 lb/yr. 4. Domestic Loading Emissions Tankship emissions = (229,000 tons/yr/3,75 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.005 lb/1,000 gal = 305 lb/yr. Barge emissions = (527,000 tons/yr/3.75 tons/1, 0Q0 gal) x 0.005 lb/1,000 gal = 703 lb/yr. 5. Foreign Ballasting Emissions Import emissions = (1,212,000 tons/yr/3.75 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.253 x 0.30 cargo tank ballast x 0.005 lb/1,000 gal = 123 lb/yr. Export emissions = 0. 6. Domestic Ballasting Emissions Tankship emissions = (229 tons/yr/3, 175 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.21 x 0.30 cargo tank ballast x 0.005 lb/1,000 gal 19 lb/yr. Barge emissions = 0.

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227 J ET 11JEL EMI S S IONS 1. Density = 0.738 g/cc = 3.075 tons/1, COO gal (JP-4) . 2 . From EPA, ship loading, f = 0. 5; barge loading, f = 1. 2; assume ballasting, f = 0.5. 3. Foreign Loading Emissions Import emissions = 0. Export emissions - (390,000 tons/yr/3.075 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.5 lb/l,OOO gal = 63,415 lb/yr 4. Domestic Loading Emissions Tankship emissions = (4,630,000 tons/yr/3.075 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.5 lb/1,000 gal - 752,846 lb/yr. (911,000 tons/yr/3.075 tons/1,000 gal) x 1.2 lb/l,OOO gal - 3,555,122 lb/yr. Barge emissions = Foreign Ballasting Emission Import emissions = (2,120,000 tons/yr/3.075 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.253 x 0.30 cargo tank ballast x 0.5 lb/l,OOO gal = 26,164 lb/yr. . Export emissions = 0. 6. Domestic Ballasting Emissions Tankship emissions = (4,630,000 tons/yr/3.075 tons/1000 gal) x 0.21 x 0.30 cargo tank ballast x 0.5 lb/l,OOO gal - 47,429 lb/yr. KEROS ENE EMI S S I ONS . Density = 0.81 g/cc = 3.375 tons/1,000 gal. 2. From EPA, ship loading, f = 0.005; barge loading, f = 0.013; assume ballasting, f = 0.005. Foreign Loading Emissions Import emissions = 0. Export emissions = 0.

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228 4. Domestic Loading Emissions Tankship emissions = (600,000 tons/yr/3.375 tons/1,000 gal) x O.005 lb/1,000 gal = 889 lb,/yr. = (1,690,000 tons/yr/3.375 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.013 lb/1,000 gal = 6,510 lb/yr. Barge emissions 5. Foreign Ballasting Emissions Import emissions = (280,000 tons/yr/3.375 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.253 x 0.30 cargo tank ballast x 0.005 lb/1,000 gal = 32 lb/yr. . Export emissions = 0. 6 . Domes tic Bal las tiny Emis s ions Tankship emissions = (600, 000 tons/yr/3 .375 tons/1, 000 gal) x 0.21 x 0.30 cargo tank ballast x 0. 005 lb/1,000 gal = 56 lb/yr. DISTILLATE (LIGHT) FUEL OIL EMISSIONS 1. Density = 0.67 g/cc - 2.792 tons/1,000 gal. 2. From EPA, ship loading, f - 0.005; barge loading, f = 0.012; assume ballasting, f = 0.005. 3. Foreign Loading Emi s s ions Import emiss ions = 0 . Export emissions = (3 , 140, 000 tons/yr/2.792 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.005 lb/1, 000 gal = 5, 623 lb/yr. . Barge emiss ions . 4. Domestic Loading Emissions Tankship emissions = (14,710,000 tons/yr/2.792 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.005 = 26,343 lb/yr. = (45,810,000 tons/yr/2.792 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.012 = 196,891 lb/yr. 5. Foreign Ballasting Import emissions = Export emissions Emissions (14,680,000 tons/yr/2.792 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.253 x 0.30 cargo tank ballast x 0.005 lb/1,000 gal 1,995 lb/yr. O.

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229 6. Domestic Ballasting Emissions Tankship emissions = (14,710,000 tons/yr/2.792 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.21 x 0.30 cargo tank ballast x 0.005 lb/1,000 gal = 1,660 lb/yr. . Barge emissions = 0. RESIDUAL (HEAVY) FUEL OIL EMISSIONS 1. Density = 0.773 g/cc = 3.22 tons/1,000 gal. 2. From EPA, ship loading, f = 0.0004; barge loading, f = 0.00009; assume ballasting, f = 0.0004. 3. Foreign Loading Emissions Import emissions = 0. Export emissions = (12,220,000 tons/yr/3.22 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.00004 - 152 lb/yr. 4. Domestic Loading Emissions Tankship emissions = (20,340,000 tons/yr/3.22 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.00004 - 253 lb/yr. - (74,89Q,000 tons/yr/3.22 tons/1, ooo gal) x 0.00009 = 2,093 lb/yr. Barge emissions 5. Foreign Ballasting Emissions Import emissions = (40,860,000 tons/yr/3.22 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.253 x 0.30 cargo tank ballast x 0.0004 = 39 lb/yr. Export emissions = 0. 6. Domestic Ballasting Emissions Tankship emissions = (20,340,000 tons/yr/3.22 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.21 x 0.30 cargo tank ballast x 0 ~ 00004 - 16 lb/yr. Barge emissions - 0. LUBE OIL EMI S S IONS 1. Density (approx. ~ = 0.88 g/cc = 3 .7 tons/1, 000 gal 2. From Scott (see Table 1-2), assume f - 0.005 for all cases .

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230 . Foreign Loading Emissions Import emissions = 0. Export emissions = (1,650,000 tons/yr/3.7 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.005 lb/l,OOO = 2,230 lb/yr. 4. Domestic Loading Emissions Tankship emissions = (2,180,QOO tons/yr/3.7 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.005 lb/1,000 gal = 2,946 lb/yr. Barge emissions = (3,020,000 tons/yr/3.7 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.005 lb/1,000 gal - 4,081 lb/yr. 5. Foreign Ballasting Emissions Import emissions = (1,200,000 tons/yr/3.7 tons/l,OOO gal) x 0.253 x 0.30 cargo tank ballast x 0.005 lb/1,000 gal - 123 lb/yr. . . Export emissions = 0. 6. Domestic Ballasting Emissions Tankship emissions = (2,180,000 tons/yr/3.7 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.21 x 0.30 cargo tank ballast x 0.005 lb/l,OOO gal = 186 lb/yr. = 0 . Barge emissions EMISSIONS FROM NAPHTHAS AND SOLVENTS 1. Density (approx.) = 0.74 g/cc = 3.1 tons/1,000 gal. 2. From Scott, assume f = 0.3 for all cases. 3. Foreign Loading Emissions Import emissions = 0. Export emissions = (130,000 tons/yr/3.1 tons/1000 gal) x 0.3 lb/l,OOO gal = 12,581 lb/yr. 4. Domestic Loading Emissions Tankship emissions = (1,110,000 tons/yr/3. lb/l,OOO gal - 107,419 lb/yr. Barge emissions = (4,590,000 tons/yr/3. lb/l,OOO gal = 444~194 lb/100 gal. .1 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.3 tons/l,OOO gal) x 0.3

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231 Foreign Ballasting Emissions Import emissions = (9,230,000 tons/yr/3.1 tons/1,000 gal) x 0.253 x 0.30 cargo tank ballast x 0.3 lb/1,000 gal 67,796 lb/yr. O. Export emissions 6. Domestic Ballasting Emissions Tankship emissions = (1,110,000 tons/yr/3.1 tons/1,000 gal) 0.21 x 0.30 cargo tank ballast x 0.3 lb/l,OOO gal = 6,767 lb/yr. Barge emissions = 0.