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APPENDIX G CALCULATIONS OF COST-EFFECTIVENESS AS A FUNCTION OF TERMINAL THROUGHPUT The cost-effectiveness of an emission control system may be measured by the dollars spent per metric ton of emissions abated. The cost per metric ton of emissions abated for marine terminals will generally dec- rease as terminal throughput increases. This appendix presents assump- tions, calculations, and plotted results showing the relationships for three model terminals. The resultant cost-effectiveness calculations of the vapor recovery systems for the three model terminal cases with varying throughput are shown in Figures G-1, G-2, and G-3. The system assumptions, calculation approach, and the results and their presentation in Figures G-1, G-2, and G-3 are discussed herein. SYSTEM ASSUMPTIONS The United Technical Design, Inc. study (UTD, 1987) is the cost basis for the analyses in this appendix. These and other assumptions are noted below: Vessel retrofit costs Normal annual terminal use--2,000 hr/yr Interest rate for amortization--10% Equipment life (including retrofit)--20 years Vapor recovery efficiency--99.8% Incinerator costs (capital, amortization of capital, maintenance, pilot gas, fans) a. Products terminal loading barges--UTD Case 5 b. Crude oil terminal loading ships--UTD Case 6 c. Products terminal loading barges and ships--UTD Case 7 ~ -~ (capital, amortization of capital, maintenance) a. 70-kdwt oil carrier--UTD Case 1 b. 35-kdwt products carrier--UTD Case 2 c. 19-kdwt ocean barge--UTD Case 3 d. Inland river barge--UTD Case 4 243

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244 18 16 o ._ o o o - O: ~n O LL N z - ~ O - ~ cn z cn _ , Z ~4 ~ LL 6 o 14 12 10 8 \ \ o 1 -1 _ l - 4 Terminal + 2x Vessel / Terminal + Vessels '/ / Terminal Alone _ ~ / / / 6 TERMINAL THROUGHPUT (millions bbl/yr) 8 FIGURE G-1 Cost-effectiveness as a function of throughput--inland terminal serving barges. Source: UTD (19871. 18 16 - o . 14 - E O 12 o ~: 111 C) ct O c~ ~ LL - LL (n N z ~ O <: ~ cn Z - Z ~ LU 10 8 6 4 2 o 1 1 ~ Terminal + 2x \'essel Terminal + Vessels / Terminal Alone 0 20 40 60 TERMINAL THROUGHPUT (millions bbl/yr) FIGURE G-2 Cost-effectiveness as a function of throughput--crude oil terminal for ships Source: UTD (1987) .

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245 40 - o ._ a) to to to Ct CL 111 ~ C' en O C] 0 111 ~ A: LL in Z O ~ ~ As in Z ~ 20 _ ~ I 1 1 Terminal + 2x Vessels / Terminal ~ Vessels Terminal Alone 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 TERM INAL THROUGHPUT (millions bbl/yr) FIGURE G-3 Cost-effectiveness as a function of throughput--product terminal serving ships or barges. Source: UTD (19871. Vapor emission factors (lb/l,OOO gal) a. 70-kdwt oil carrier--0.61 b. 35-kdwt products carrier--1.8 c. 19-kdwt ocean barge--1.8 d. Inland river barge--3.4 Vessel voyage assumptions (fleet factors) this appendix. CALCULATION APPROACH as discussed later in The annual throughput of a terminal is a function not only of its design capability, but also of the number and type of vessels serviced. To review cost variations with throughput, assumptions must be made about the size and composition of the fleet of vessels frequenting the terminal. These assumptions relate strongly to the typical voyage length of the vessels. Approximate rule-of-thumb fleet factors were used for this purpose, as shown in Table G-1. The "fleet factor" is the average vessel lay down or throughput of cargo per unit time. The values in the table are very rough assumptions and can vary greatly for a specific terminal.

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246 TABLE G-1 Fleet Factors Fleet Vessel Factors Average Average Capacity (bbl/day/ Trips/ Days/ (1,000 bbl) vessel) Year Trip Type of Vessel 25 1,000 14.6 25.0 Inland river barge 120-150 10,000 27.0 13.5 19-kdwt ocean barge 262.5 20,000 27.8 13.1 35-kdwt products carrier 400-600 25,000 18.3 20.0 70-kdwt oil carrier The calculations of cost per emissions abated versus terminal throughput were performed using a computer spreadsheet, as shown in the example Tables G-2 and G-3. Annualized terminal costs for vapor recov- ery are developed in columns (7) through (14~. Annualized vessel retro- fit and operational costs are also developed on the sheets by first determining the number of vessels needed to service the terminal (column 29~. The mix of vessels and their terminal loading rates are assumed in columns (19) and (27) and determine terminal throughput in column (283. The number of vessels to produce the throughput is then calculated in column (29) based on the fleet factor assumption. Vessel related costs are then developed in column (33) and emissions in columns (34) and (35~. Costs per emission abated are presented in columns ( 15 ) , terminal related costs only, and (16~. CALCULATED RESULTS Results of the calculation for the specific cases of interest can then be repeatedly calculated by varying the value of annual use (hours/year) in column (1) to result in varying terminal throughputs. The calculation results for the cases analyzed are shown in Tables G-4 through G-8 and in concluding Figures G-1 through G-3. Table G-4, for example, shows the variation with throughput of the costs per emissions abated for three cases: terminal only, terminal and vessels, and terminal and twice as many vessels. The third case was derived by arbitrarily doubling the determined fleet size. This was done to look at sensitivity and put an upper-bound on vessel costs because of the roughness of the fleet factors. It is possible, however, that the fleet factors as provided already yield the high-cost case.

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249 TABLE G-4 Inland Terminal Serving River Barges, UTD Case 5 Hours Throughput 1,000 Cost-Effectiveness (fleet factors) Incin. Only 50200,000 16,299 17,55415,044 100400,000 8,783 10,0387,528 150600,000 6,277 7,5325,022 200800,000 5,025 6,2793,770 2501,000,000 4,273 5,5283,018 3001,200,000 3,772 5,0272,517 3501,400,000 3,414 4,6692,159 4001 ~ 600,000 3,146 4,4001,891 4501,800,000 2,937 4,1921,682 5002,000,000 2,770 4,0251,515 5502,200,000 2,633 3,8881,378 6002,400,000 2,519 3,7741,264 6S02,600,000 2,423 3,6781,168 7002,800,000 2,340 3,5951,085 7503,000,000 2,269 3,5241,014 8003,200,000 2,206 3,461951 8503,400,000 2,151 3,406896 9003,600,000 2,102 3,357847 9503,800,000 2,058 3,313803 1,0004,000,000 2,018 3,273763 1,0504,200,000 1,982 3,237727 1,1004,400,000 1,950 3,205695 1,1504,600,000 1,920 3,175665 1,2004,800,000 1,893 3,148638 1,2505,000,000 1,868 3,123613 1,3005,200,000 1,845 3,100590 1,3505,400,000 1,823 3,078568 1,4005,600,000 1,803 3,058549 1,4505,800,000 1,785 3,040530 1,5006,000,000 1,768 3,022513 1,5506,200,000 1,751 3,006497 1,6006,400,000 1,736 2,991481 1,6506,600,000 1,722 2,977461 1,7006,800,000 1,709 2,964454 1,7507,000,000 1,696 2,951441 1,8007,200,000 1,684 2,939429 1,8507,400,000 1,673 2,928418 1,9007,600,000 1,662 2,917407 1,9507,800,000 1,652 2,907397 2,0008,000,000 1,642 2,897387

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Hours Throughput 250 TABLE G- 5 Crude Oil Terminal for 70-kdwt Ships, UTD Case 6 Cost- Effectiveness ( fleet factors ) 25,000 12,500 Incin. Only 50 1,750,00017,03317,26716,799 100 3,500,0008,6378,8718,403 150 5,250,0005,8396,0735,605 200 7,000,0004,4394,6734,205 250 8,750,0003,6003,8343,366 300 10,500,0003,0403,2742,806 350 12,250,0002,6402,8742,406 400 14,000,0002,3402,5742,106 450 15,750,0002,1072,3411,873 500 17,500,0001,9212,1551,687 550 19,250,0001,7682,0021,534 600 21,000,0001,6411 j 8751,407 650 22,750,0001,5331,7671,299 700 24,500,0001,4411,6751,207 750 26,250,0001,3611,5951,127 800 28,000,0001,2911,5251,057 850 29,750,0001,2291,463995 900 31,500,0001,1741,408940 950 33,250,0001,1251,359891 1,000 35,000,0001,0811,315847 1,050 36,750,0001,0411,275807 1,100 38,500,0001, ()051,239771 1,150 40,250,0009711,205737 1,200 42,000,0009411,175707 1,250 43,750,0009131,147679 1,300 45,500,0008871,121653 1,350 47,250,0008631,097629 1,400 49,000,0008411,075607 1,450 50,750,0008201,054586 1,500 52,500,0008011,035567 1,550 54,250,0007831,017549 1,600 56,000,0007661,000532 1,650 57,750,000750984516 1,700 59,500,000735969501 1,750 61,250,000721955487 1,800 63,000,000708942474 1,850 64,750,000695929461 1,900 66,500,000683917449 1,950 68,250,000672906438 2,000 70,000,000661895427

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251 TABLE G-6 Products Terminal Serving 35-kdwt Ships, UTD Case 7 Cost-Effectiveness (fleet factors) Hours Throughput20,000 10,000Incin. Only 50 1,250,00023,111 23,37222,851 100 2,500,00011,693 11,95311,432 150 3,750,0007,887 8,1477,626 200 5,000,0005,984 6,2445,723 250 6,250,0004,842 5,1024,581 300 7,500,0004,081 4,3413,820 350 8,750,0003,537 3,7973,276 400 10,000,0003,129 3,3892,869 450 11,250,0002,812 3,0722,551 500 12,500,0002,558 2,8182,298 550 13,750,0002,350 2,6112,090 600 15,000,0002,177 2,4381,917 650 16,250,0002,031 2,2911,771 700 17,500,0001,906 2,1661,645 750 18,750,0001,797 2,0571,537 800 20,000,0001,702 1,9621,441 850 21,250,0001,618 1,8781,357 900 22,500,0001,543 1,8031,283 950 23,750,0001,476 1,7371,216 1,000 25,000,0001,416 1,6771,156 1,050 26,250,0001,362 1,6221,102 1,100 27,500,0001,312 1,5731,052 1,150 28,750,0001,267 1,5281,007 1,200 30,000,0001,226 1,486966 1,250 31,250,0001,188 1,448928 1,300 32,500,0001,153 1,413892 1,350 33,750,0001,120 1,381860 1,400 35,000,0001,090 1,350830 1,450 36,250,0001,062 1,322802 1,500 37,500,0001,036 1,296775 1,550 38,750,0001,011 1,271751 1,600 40,000,000988 1,248728 1,650 41,250,000966 1,227706 1,700 42,500,000946 1,206686 1,750 43,750,000927 1,187667 1,800 45,000,000909 1,169648 1,850 46,250,000892 1,152631 1,900 47,500,000875 1,136615 1,950 48,750,000860 1,120600 2,000 50,000,000845 1,106585

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252 TABLE G-7 UTD Case 7 Products Terminal Serving Inland River Barges, Cost-Effectiveness ( fleet factors ) Hours Throughput 1,000 500 Incin. Only 50200,000 76,864 78,119 75,609 100400,000 39,083 40,338 37,828 150600,000 26,489 27,744 25,234 200800,000 20,192 21,447 18,937 2501,000,000 16,414 17,669 15,159 3001,200,000 13, 89S 15,150 12,640 3501,400,000 12,096 13,351 10,841 4001,600,000 10,747 12,002 9,492 4501,800,000 9,697 10,952 8,442 5002,000,000 8,858 10,113 7,603 5502,200,000 8,171 9,426 6,916 6002,400,000 7,598 8,853 6,343 6502,600,000 7,114 8,369 5,859 7002,800,000 6,699 7,954 5,444 7503,000,000 6,339 7,594 5,084 8003,200,000 6,024 7,279 4,769 8503,400,000 5,746 7,001 4,491 9003,600,000 5,499 6,754 4,244 9503,800,000 5,278 6,533 4,024 1,0004,000,000 5,080 6,334 3,825 1,0504,200,000 4,900 6,155 3,645 1,1004,400,000 4,736 5,991 3,481 1,1504,600,000 4,587 5,842 3,332 1,2004,800,000 4,450 5,705 3,195 1,2505,000,000 4,324 5,579 3,069 1,3005,200,000 4,208 5,463 2,953 1,3505,400,000 4,100 5,355 2,845 1,4005,600,000 4,000 5,255 2,745 1,4505,800,000 3,907 5,162 2,652 1,5006,000,000 3,820 5,075 2,565 1,5506,200,000 3,739 4,994 2,484 1,6006,400,000 3,663 4,918 2,408 1,6506,600,000 3,591 4,846 2,336 1,7006,800,000 3,524 4,779 2,269 1,7507,000,000 3,460 4,715 2,205 1,8007,200,000 3,400 4,655 2,146 1,8507,400,000 3,344 4,599 2,089 1,9007,600,000 3,290 4,545 2,035 1,9507,800,000 3,239 4,494 1,984 2,0008,000,000 3,190 4,445 1,936

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253 TABLE G-8 Products Terminal Serving Both Inland River Barges and 35-kdwt Ships, UTD Case 7 Cost-Effectiveness (fleet factors) HoursThroughput High LowIncin. Only 50725,000 35,786 36,47735,095 1001,450,000 18,249 18,94117,558 1502,175,000 12,404 13,09511~713 2002,900,000 9,481 10,1728,790 2503,625,000 7,727 8,4197,036 3004,350,000 6,558 7,2495,867 3505,075,000 5,723 6,4145,032 4005,800,000 5,097 5,7884,406 4506,525,000 4,610 5,3013,919 5007,250,000 4,220 4,9113,529 5507,975,000 3,901 4,5923,210 6008,700,000 3,635 4,3272,944 6509,425,000 3,411 4,1022,720 70010,150,000 3,218 3,9092,527 75010,875,000 3,051 3,7422,360 80011,600,000 2,905 3,5962,214 85012,325,000 2,776 3,4672,085 90013,050,000 2,661 3,3521,970 95013,775,000 2,559 3,2501,868 1,00014,500,000 2,466 3,1571,775 1,05015,225,000 2,383 3,0741,692 1,100Is, 950,000 2,307 2,9981,616 1,15016,675,000 2,238 2,9291,547 1,20017,400,000 2,174 2,8651,483 1,25018,125,000 2,116 2,8071,425 1,30018,850,000 2,062 2,7531,371 1,35019,575,000 2,012 2,7031,321 1,40020,300,000 1,965 2,6561,274 1,45021,025,000 1,922 2,6131,231 1,50021,750,000 1,882 2,5731,191 1,55022,475,000 1,844 2,5351,153 1,60023,200,000 1,809 2,5001,118 1,65023,925,000 1,776 2,4671,084 1,70024,650,000 1,744 2,4351,053 1,7502S,375,000 1,715 2,4061,024 1,80026,100,000 1,687 2,378996 1,85026,825,000 1,661 2,352970 1,90027,550,000 1,636 2,327945 1,95028,275,000 1,612 2,303921 2,00029,000,000 1,590 2,281898

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254 Figures G-1 through G-3 present these results as three curves. For the products terminal in Figure G-3, both inland and 35-dwt tankships could dock at the terminal. A sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the effect of change of vessel type. Tables G-6 to G-8 show cost-effectiveness as a function of throughput assuming cases of only 35-kdwt tankships, only inland barges, and half barge and half tank- ships. The case of half barges and half tankships (Table G-8) provides the widest cost-effectiveness range for a given throughput and is thus the one presented in Figure G-3. It must be understood that the costs for a specific terminal can be very different than the results presented here since costs are very sensitive to length of piping run and other terminal specifics. REFERENCE United Technical Design, Inc. (UTD). 1987. Scoping Quality Cost Estimate for Marine Vapor Control Systems. Unpublished study. Available from the Marine Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.