greater capability to enable the sciences researchers want to carry out. In recent years, the rate of significant advances is such that instruments should be replaced with a frequency of about 10 years. Is this too large an investment? I think not, when the increased capability to answer important questions in the very wide range of science enabled by microcharacterization is taking into account.

Thus in many ways, the large facilities and the microcharacterization centers play complementary roles in the range of DOE facilities. While they serve complementary purposes, it would be difficult to imagine a DOE research environment with either of the two types of facilities missing.

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