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Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: Beir VII Phase 2
EXPOSURE FROM NATURAL BACKGROUND RADIATION
Human beings are exposed to natural background radiation every day from the ground, building materials, air, food, the universe, and even elements in their own bodies. In the United States, the majority of exposure to background ionizing radiation comes from exposure to radon gas and its decay products. Radon is a colorless, odorless gas that emanates from the earth and, along with its decay products, emits a mixture of high- and low-LET radiation. Radon can be hazardous when accumulated in underground areas such as poorly ventilated basements. The National Research Council 1999 report, Health Effects of Exposure to Radon (BEIR VI), reported on the health effects of radon, and therefore those health effects are not discussed in this report. Average annual exposures worldwide to natural radiation sources (both high and low LET) would generally be expected to be in the range of 1–10 mSv, with 2.4 mSv being the present estimate of the central value.4 Of this amount, about one-half (1.2 mSv per year) comes from radon and its decay products. Average annual background exposures in the United States are slightly higher (3.0 mSv) due in part to higher average radon levels. After radon, the next highest percentage of natural ionizing radiation exposure comes from cosmic rays, followed by terrestrial sources, and “internal” emissions. Cosmic rays are particles that travel through the universe. The Sun is a source of some of these particles. Other particles come from exploding stars called supernovas.
The amount of terrestrial radiation from rocks and soils varies geographically. Much of this variation is due to differences in radon levels. “Internal” emissions come from radioactive isotopes in food and water and from the human body itself. Exposures from eating and drinking are due in part to the uranium and thorium series of radioisotopes present in food and drinking water.5 An example of a radioisotope moving through the food chain would be carbon-14 (14C), a substance found in all living things. 14C is created when cosmic rays collide with nitrogen atoms. 14C combines with oxygen to create carbon dioxide gas. Plants absorb carbon dioxide during photosynthesis, and animals feed on those plants. In these ways, 14C accumulates in the food chain and contributes to the internal background dose from ionizing radiation.
As mentioned previously, possible health effects of low-dose, low-LET radiation are the focus of this BEIR VII report. Because of the “mixed” nature of many radiation sources, it is difficult to estimate precisely the percentage of natural background radiation that is low LET. Figure PS-1 illustrates the approximate sources and relative amounts of high-LET and low-LET radiations that comprise the natural background exposure worldwide. This figure illustrates the relative contributions of three natural sources of high-LET radiation and three natural sources of low-LET radiation to the global population exposure. The smaller, detached segment of the chart represents the relative contribution of low-LET radiation sources to the annual background exposure. The total average annual population exposure worldwide due to low-LET radiation would generally be expected to be in the range of 0.2–1.0 mSv, with 0.9 mSv being the present estimate of the central value.
CONTRIBUTION OF MAN-MADE RADIATION TO PUBLIC EXPOSURE
In addition to natural background radiation, people are also exposed to low- and high-LET radiation from man-made sources such as X-ray equipment and radioactive materials used in medicine, research, and industry. A 1987 study6 of ionizing radiation exposure of the population of the United States estimated that natural background radiation comprised 82% of the annual U.S. population exposure, while manmade sources contributed 18% (see Figure PS-2, pie chart in the lower left portion of the figure).
In Figure PS-2, the man-made radiation component (upper right portion of the figure) shows the relative contributions of the various types of man-made radiation to the U.S. population.7 Medical X-rays and nuclear medicine account for about 79% of the man-made radiation exposure in the United States. Elements in consumer products, such as tobacco, the domestic water supply, building materials, and to a lesser extent, smoke detectors, televisions, and computer screens, account for another 16%. Occupational exposures, fallout, and the nuclear fuel cycle comprise less than 5% of the man-made component and less than 1% of the combined background and man-made component. Additional small amounts of exposure from background and man-made radiation come from activities such as traveling by jet aircraft (cosmic radiation—add 0.01 mSv for each 1000 miles traveled), living near a coal-fired power plant (plant emissions—add 0.0003 mSv), being near X-ray luggage inspection scanners (add 0.00002 mSv), or living within 50 miles of a nuclear power plant (add 0.00009 mSv).8
United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). 2000. Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Volume 1: Sources. New York: United Nations. Table 31, p. 40.
UNSCEAR. 2000. Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation. Report to the General Assembly, with scientific annexes. New York: United Nations.
National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). 1987. Ionizing Radiation Exposure of the Population of the United States. Washington, DC: NCRP, No. 93.
National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. 1987. Ionizing Radiation Exposure of the Population of the United States. Washington, DC: NCRP, No. 93.
National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Reports #92-95 and #100. Washington, DC: NCRP.