response to pharmacologic agents of the tumor vascular bed in animals and humans (Nature 1964; Cancer Research 1979); of renal, adrenal, hepatic, pancreatic, colon, and splenic tumors (1951, 1964, 1965, 1980, 1982, 1983); and of the reasons for and effects of overutilization (NEJM 1979) and underutilization of X-rays (NEJM 1984) have appeared in major journals over the years. Dr. Abrams served as a member of the Radiation Study Section of the National Institutes of Health (NIH); a member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) Planning Committee for the Symposium on the Medical Implications of Nuclear War (1985); as one of the four physician members of the congressionally mandated National Council on Health Care Technology and as co-chair of its Methods Section (1986-1990); as chairman of the NIH Consensus Conference on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (1987); as a consultant to the Presidential Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments; and as one of two American members of the International Blue Ribbon Panel on the future of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima (1996). His examinations of the “Medical Problem of Survivors of Nuclear War” (NEJM 1981); “Medical Resources After Nuclear War: Availability vs Need” (JAMA 1984); “Nuclear Radiation in Warfare” (XV Berzelius Symposium 1988); “The Fallout from Chernobyl” (The Bulletin); “Human Reliability and Safety in the Handling of Nuclear Weapons” (Science and Global Security 1991); and “Security Issues in the Handling and Disposition of Fissionable Materials” (1993) and other related subjects have been published in numerous journals and four multiauthored books. A member of the IOM since 1980, he is also an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Radiology of Great Britain and the Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland. The author of more thean 200 articles, he has also written and/or edited eight books on health policy, technology assessment, and the clinical and pathophysiologic aspects of cardiovascular disease. The Crookshank Lecturer of the Royal College of Radiology in 1981 and the Caldwell Lecturer of the American Roentgen Ray Society in 1982, he was also the recipient of the Gold Medal of the Association of University Radiologists in 1984 and the Gold Medal of the Radiological Society of North America in 1996. In 1998, he presented the Charles Dotter Memorial Lecture of the American Heart Association. He was the founding vice-president of International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, recipient of the 1985 Nobel Peace Prize. Currently, his time is divided between his work in radiology at the medical school and his activities as a member-in-residence of the Stanford Center for International Security and Cooperation.


Eula Bingham, Ph.D., is a professor of environmental health at the University of Cincinnati. Dr. Bingham’s interests include risk assessment, regulatory toxicology, environmental carcinogenesis, and occupational health surveillance. She was a volunteer investigator at NIEHS and an Assistant Secretary of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration. She was the first recipient of the William Lloyd Award for occupational safety. Throughout her career, Dr. Bingham has served on numerous national and international advisory groups, including advisory committees of the NRC, the NAS, the Food and Drug Administration, Department of Labor, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, NIH, Natural Resources Defense Council, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The committees addressed issues concerning research needs in health risk assessment and the potential health effects of environmental exposure to chemicals. In 1989, Dr. Bingham was elected to the IOM.


Patricia A. Buffler, Ph.D., is professor of epidemiology and the Kenneth and Marjorie Kaiser Chair of Cancer Epidemiology at the University of California, Berkeley, School of Public Health. Her current research interests in epidemiology include studies of leukemia in children, health effects of exposure to tobacco smoke, and health effects of nonionizing radiation. She has served on numerous national and international advisory groups including advisory committees to the Department of Energy, the Department of Defense, the Department of Health and Human Services, the Environmental Protection Agency, the University of California Office of the President, the National Research Council and the World Health Organization (WHO). From 1996 to 2002 she served as a visiting director for the U.S.-Japan RERF. She has served as president of the Society of Epidemiologic Research, the American College of Epidemiology, and the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology and as an officer of the Medical Sciences Council of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). She was awarded the American College of Epidemiology Lilienfeld Award in 1996 and the James Bruce Award in Preventive Medicine from the American College of Physicians in 1999. She is a fellow of both the American College of Epidemiology and AAAS and is a member of the IOM.


Elisabeth Cardis, Ph.D., currently runs the Radiation Group at the IARC, where she was previously chief of the Unit of Radiation and Cancer and head of the Radiation Programme. She is responsible for the planning, conduct, and analyses of numerous epidemiologic studies of cancer in relation to exposure to radiation—both ionizing and nonionizing. She has been consultant to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). She is currently a member of the Steering Committee for the EMF-Net project; of the International Advisory Committee for the WHO International EMF Project; and of the Scientific Council of the French Agence Française pour la Sécurité Sanitaire et Environnementale. She is a fellow of the Institute of Physics. She was a member of the International Commission for Non-ionizing Radiation Protection Standing Committee on Epidemiology from 1998 to 2002 and has been a corresponding member since then. She is also a member of the Scien-



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