Antibody genes, 34

Antitumorigenic defenses, 67

APC gene, 66, 80, 82, 83

Apert’s syndrome, 98, 103

Aplastic anemia, 153

Apoptosis, 48-49, 54, 55, 67, 80, 81, 88, 373

Apurinic-apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1), 32, 33

Apurinic nucleases, 35, 42

Arthroses, 165

Asbestos, 200

Ashkenazi Jews, 85

Ataxia telangiectasia, 35, 36, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 86, 93

ATF3, 56

Atherosclerosis, 185, 186

ATM gene, 67, 80, 84, 86

ATM kinase, 35, 36, 37, 39, 50, 56

Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, 91, 141

Atomic bomb survivors

Adult Health Study, 142, 150, 151, 153

age and cancer risks, 72, 143, 144, 145, 147, 148, 149, 240, 297-298

autopsy data, 151, 152, 153

benign neoplasms, 150, 151-152

bladder cancer, 147, 148, 269, 303-306

bone cancer, 269

breast cancer, 12, 26, 85, 135, 147, 148-149, 170, 177, 180, 243, 269, 303-306

cancer risk assessment, 7-8, 138, 143-154, 239-240, 241-245, 262, 275-276, 285-286, 296-308

cardiovascular disease and stroke, 1, 8, 152, 153, 185

cataracts, 153

children of, 6, 8-9, 114, 118, 129, 130-131, 149, 151

chromosome nondisjunctions, 131

cohort description, 13, 141, 142-143

colon cancer, 147, 148, 149, 151, 269, 303-306

compatibility of data with other cohorts, 267-268

Committee’s analysis of data, 267-268, 296-308

confounding and bias in studies, 141, 146, 152-153, 268, 297

cytogenetic studies, 68

data used in this study, 13, 142, 144

DDREF, 246-250, 254-258

deaths from cancer, 142, 143, 144, 145, 147, 151

digestive system cancers, 149

dose-response relationships, 6, 13, 24, 45, 68, 72, 137, 140, 142, 143, 144, 145-146, 147, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 245

dosimetry, 6, 9, 10, 20, 24, 27, 72, 129, 134, 139, 141, 142-143, 144, 266

doubling dose, 7, 8, 118, 124, 130-131, 252

DREF, 146

esophageal cancer, 147, 148, 149, 215, 269

extrapolation to low dose rates, 146

follow-up, 8, 134, 239-240, 245

gall bladder cancer, 147, 148, 149, 269

genetic risk assessment, 8-9, 91, 92, 114, 115, 118, 131, 252

health end point data, 13, 76-77, 130, 131, 142

healthy survivor effect, 152

in utero exposures, 151, 172

incidence of cancer, 13, 130, 142, 144-145, 148-149, 151, 298-307

infant and childhood mortality, 8

kidney cancer, 149, 269

leukemia, 68, 72, 142, 143, 144, 153, 172, 240, 244, 245, 269, 307-308

life shortening, 153-154

Life Span Study, 9, 12-13, 26, 141-154, 239-240, 242, 245, 246-250, 267-268, 296-308

limitations of studies, 141, 240

liver cancer, 147, 150, 148, 149, 242, 269, 303-306

lung cancer, 68, 147, 148, 150, 215, 242, 269, 276, 303-306

lymphoma, 151, 153

medical exposure data combined with, 146-147

mental retardation, 1

mortality data, 130, 131, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 147, 151, 152-153, 298-307

multiple myeloma, 151

mutation rates, 6, 114, 129, 130-131

nervous system cancers, 148, 149, 151, 152

neutron RBE, 20, 27, 142, 143, 146

nonneoplastic disease, 13, 143, 152-153

nuclear industry workers compared, 201, 203

oropharyngeal cancers, 148, 149

ovarian cancer, 147, 148, 149, 269, 303-306

pancreatic cancer, 147, 148, 149

prostate cancer, 147, 148, 149, 303-306

rectal cancer, 147, 148, 149

respiratory system cancers, 149

salivary gland cancer, 149-150, 269

sex differences, 144, 145, 150, 151, 153

site-specific cancers, 147-151, 303-307

skin cancers, 148, 149, 150-151, 269, 295

smoking effects, 150, 276

solid cancers, 13, 45, 130, 142, 143, 144-147, 149, 245, 297-305

statistical analyses, 143-144

stomach cancer, 147, 148, 149, 150, 173-174, 215, 240, 242, 269, 303-306

suicides, 153

thyroid cancer, 148, 149, 181, 269, 295

transport of risks to other populations, 14, 240, 241-245, 267-268, 275-276

two-stage clonal expansion model applied to, 262

uncertainties in data, 130, 131, 141, 147, 172, 285-286

urinary tract cancer, 148, 149

uterine cancer, 147, 148, 149, 303-306

Atomic Energy Authority (UK), 190, 191, 192, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 232, 233

Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., 191, 192, 195, 196, 197, 199

Atomic Weapons Establishment (UK), 190, 191, 192, 194, 195, 196, 197-198, 232, 233

ATR, 36, 37, 39

Attributable risk, defined, 373

Autoimmune diseases, 225

Autoimmune hypothyroidism, 151

Autopsy data

atomic bomb survivors, 151, 152, 153

noncancer diseases, 151, 152, 153

B

Background radiation. See Natural background radiation

Bacteria

adaptive response, 50

DNA repair, 36, 37

tumor promotion, 241-242

Basal cell carcinoma, 66, 68, 69, 80, 84, 150-151, 167.

See also Skin cancer

BAX, 56

Bcl2, 49

BEAR report

doubling dose method for humans, 96, 123

Becquerel, Henri, 2

BEIR I report

doubling dose method for humans, 96, 97, 118, 122, 123

genetic effects estimation, 94

principles of risk estimation, 138

BEIR III report

cancer risk models, 138

doubling dose method for humans, 118, 122-124

genetic risk estimates, 94, 94-95

BEIR V report, 92, 373

advances in risk estimates since, 115-116, 187

baseline frequencies of genetic diseases, 94-95, 96, 115, 117-118

cancer risk assessment, 138, 174, 187, 246, 265, 275, 282, 283, 291-292, 299

dose-rate reduction factor, 100 n.1, 246

doubling dose calculation, 94-96, 100 n.1, 115, 118, 123, 124, 252

environmental exposure studies, 208, 209-214

extrapolation of animal data to humans, 115

genetic disease risk estimates, 12, 94-95, 96, 115-116, 117-118, 252

leukemia model, 246, 282, 283

multifactorial disease estimates, 95, 96, 115, 117

mutation component, 94, 106, 115

occupational exposure studies, 190

Benign diseases.

See also Ankylosing spondylitis cohorts;

Thyroid diseases;

Tinea capitis cohorts;

other specific diseases

in adults, 162-166, 183

age at exposure and, 151

in atomic bomb survivors, 150, 151-152

breast disease, 26, 151, 163, 174, 177, 180, 185, 287

in children, 26, 68, 155, 156, 166-170, 174, 176, 177, 180, 181, 182, 183

dose-response relationship, 151

genetic susceptibility, 80

hormonal infertility, 164

neoplasms, 80, 150, 151-152

peptic ulcer, 163, 174, 175, 185



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