6

 

ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVOR STUDIES

 

141

   

 Introduction,

 

141

   

 Description of the Cohort,

 

142

   

 Statistical Methods,

 

143

   

 All Solid Cancers,

 

144

   

 Site-Specific Cancers,

 

147

   

 Cancers Resulting from Exposure In Utero,

 

151

   

 Benign Neoplasms,

 

151

   

 Nonneoplastic Disease,

 

152

   

 Life Shortening,

 

153

   

 Summary,

 

154

7

 

MEDICAL RADIATION STUDIES

 

155

   

 Introduction,

 

155

   

 Medical Uses of Radiation,

 

156

   

 Evaluation of Risk for Specific Cancer Sites,

 

173

   

 Discussion,

 

187

   

 Summary,

 

187

8

 

OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION STUDIES

 

189

   

 Introduction,

 

189

   

 Nuclear Industry Workers,

 

190

   

 Workers from the Mayak Facility,

 

201

   

 Chernobyl Cleanup Workers,

 

202

   

 Airline and Aerospace Employees,

 

204

   

 Medical and Dental Occupational Exposures,

 

204

   

 Summary,

 

205

9

 

ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION STUDIES

 

207

   

 Introduction,

 

207

   

 Populations Living Around Nuclear Facilities,

 

208

   

 Populations Exposed from Atmospheric Testing, Fallout, or Other Environmental Release of Radiation,

 

212

   

 Populations Exposed from the Chernobyl Accident,

 

215

   

 Populations Exposed from Natural Background,

 

228

   

 Children of Adults Exposed to Radiation,

 

228

   

 Exposure to Radioactive Iodine 131,

 

233

   

 Discussion,

 

235

   

 Summary,

 

237

10

 

INTEGRATION OF BIOLOGY AND EPIDEMIOLOGY

 

239

   

 Introduction,

 

239

   

 DNA Damage Response and Cancer Risk,

 

239

   

 Projection of Risks Over Time,

 

239

   

 The Transport of Cancer Risk Between Different Populations,

 

240

   

 Form of the Dose-Response for Radiation Tumorigenesis,

 

245

   

 Dose and Dose-Rate Effects on Tumor Induction,

 

246

   

 Other Forms of Cellular and Animal Response to Radiation,

 

250

   

 Genetic Susceptibility to Cancer,

 

251

   

 Heritable Effects of Radiation,

 

252

   

 Summary,

 

252

   

ANNEX 10A: Application of the Moolgavkar and Knudson Two-Stage Clonal Expansion Model to the Transport of Radiation Cancer Risk,

 

253

   

ANNEX 10B: Evidence for the Connection Between Dose Effects and Dose-Rate Effects in Animal Experiments,

 

254



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement