Measuring Performance and Benchmarking Project Management at the Department of Energy

Committee for Oversight and Assessment of U.S. Department of Energy Project Management

Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
WASHINGTON, D.C.
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Measuring Performance and Benchmarking Project Management at the Department of Energy Measuring Performance and Benchmarking Project Management at the Department of Energy Committee for Oversight and Assessment of U.S. Department of Energy Project Management Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Measuring Performance and Benchmarking Project Management at the Department of Energy THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract Number DEAM01-99PO8006 between the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Academy of Sciences. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-09708-8 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2005 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Measuring Performance and Benchmarking Project Management at the Department of Energy THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Measuring Performance and Benchmarking Project Management at the Department of Energy COMMITTEE FOR OVERSIGHT AND ASSESSMENT OF U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROJECT MANAGEMENT LLOYD A. DUSCHA, Chair, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (retired), Reston, Virginia DON JEFFREY BOSTOCK, Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (retired), Oak Ridge, Tennessee ALLAN V. BURMAN, Jefferson Solutions, Washington, D.C. G. BRIAN ESTES, Consulting Engineer, Williamsburg, Virginia STEVEN L. FAHRENKROG, Project Management Institute, Newton Square, Pennsylvania (resigned January 2005) DAVID N. FORD, Texas A&M University, College Station THEODORE C. KENNEDY, BE&K, Inc., Birmingham, Alabama STEPHEN R. THOMAS, Construction Industry Institute, Austin, Texas Staff LYNDA L. STANLEY, Director, Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment RICHARD G. LITTLE, Director, Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment (through December 1, 2004) MICHAEL D. COHN, Program Officer DANA CAINES, Financial Associate PAT WILLIAMS, Senior Project Assistant

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Measuring Performance and Benchmarking Project Management at the Department of Energy BOARD ON INFRASTRUCTURE AND THE CONSTRUCTED ENVIRONMENT PAUL GILBERT, Chair, Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Seattle, Washington MASSOUD AMIN, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis RACHEL DAVIDSON, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York REGINALD DesROCHES, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta DENNIS DUNNE, Consultant, Scottsdale, Arizona PAUL FISETTE, University of Massachusetts, Amherst LUCIA GARSYS, Hillsborough County, Florida WILLIAM HANSMIRE, Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, San Francisco, California HENRY HATCH, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (retired), Oakton, Virginia AMY HELLING, Georgia State University, Atlanta THEODORE C. KENNEDY, BE&K, Inc. SUE McNEIL, University of Chicago, Illinois DEREK PARKER, Anshen+Allen, San Francisco, California HENRY SCHWARTZ, JR., Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri DAVID SKIVEN, General Motors Corporation, Detroit, Michigan MICHAEL STEGMAN, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill WILLIAM WALLACE, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York CRAIG ZIMRING, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta Staff LYNDA STANLEY, Director, Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment RICHARD G. LITTLE, Director, Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment (through December 1, 2004) MICHAEL D. COHN, Program Officer DANA CAINES, Financial Associate PAT WILLIAMS, Senior Project Assistant

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Measuring Performance and Benchmarking Project Management at the Department of Energy Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Philip R. Clark, Nuclear Corporation (retired), Henry J. Hatch, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (retired), Peter Marshall, Burns & Roe Services, Julia Melkers, University of Illinois, and James M. Tien, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Gerald E. Galloway, University of Maryland. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Measuring Performance and Benchmarking Project Management at the Department of Energy Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   3      Background,   3      Organization of This Report,   4      References,   5 2   PROJECT MANAGEMENT PERFORMANCE MEASURES   7      Control System for Process Improvement,   7      Input, Process, Output, and Outcome Measures,   8      Selecting Effective Performance Measures,   10      References,   11 3   THE BENCHMARKING PROCESS   21      Introduction,   21      Benchmarking Roadmap,   22      External Versus Internal Benchmarking,   22      Implementation of Benchmarking,   24      References,   25 4   IMPLEMENTATION   27      Introduction,   27      Development of a Performance Measurement and Benchmarking System,   27      Data Collection and Validation,   28      Benchmarking Readiness,   29      References,   29     APPENDIXES         A   NRC’ s DOE Project Management Assessment Reports   33     B   Statement of Task   35     C   Biographies of Committee Members   37     D   Discussions with DOE Personnel   41

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Measuring Performance and Benchmarking Project Management at the Department of Energy Acronyms and Abbreviations CD-0 critical decision 0, approval of mission need CD-1 critical decision 1, approval of system requirements and alternatives CD-2 critical decision 2, approval of project baseline CD-3 critical decision 3, authorization to complete implementation CD-4 critical decision 4, approval of project completion and transition to operations CII Construction Industry Institute DMAIC define, measure, analyze, improve, and control DOE U.S. Department of Energy EIR external independent review EM-PDRI Office of Environmental Management Project Definition Rating Index ESAAB Energy System Acquisition Advisory Board EVMS Earned Value Management System GAO Government Accountability Office GPRA Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 IPR independent project review IPT integrated project team OECM Office of Engineering and Construction Management OMB Office of Management and Budget PARS Project Analysis and Reporting System PSO program secretarial office