• Assessing and apportioning risks to humans from multiple contaminant exposures related to waste site sources as well as other sources (for example, lead exposure via soil and house-paint dust). What techniques should be used to identify contaminants of concern and estimate the human health risks attributable to waste site sources? In this case, were risks attributable to sources other than mining and smelting activities adequately analyzed?

  • Estimating blood lead levels in children with the integrated exposure uptake biokinetic model. Are the design, input data, and assumptions of this model consistent with current scientific understanding? In this case, was the model appropriately applied given the local and regional characteristics? Were alternative tools appropriately used to assess and interpret the model results?

  • Assessing the ecological risk from waste site contaminants in the context of multiple stressors. What are the necessary data and appropriate analyses to estimate the ecological risks attributable to waste site contaminants? In this case, how well were these analyses applied to estimate the risks, including the effects of lead on migratory fowl? Were risks attributable to sources other than mining and smelting activities adequately analyzed?

  • Defining the remediation objectives. What factors should be considered in selecting the remediation objectives? In this case, did EPA use an appropriate scientific rationale in selecting the remediation objectives, including the spatial extent and levels of remediation? Was this scientific rationale adequately explained? Were the limitations of the analyses appropriately described?

  • Evaluating the remediation approaches. In this case, were the feasibility and potential effectiveness of the remediation plans adequately characterized, given best engineering and risk practices and the site-specific characteristics? Was an adequate set of alternatives considered?

  • Lessons from the Coeur d’Alene case that may be applicable to similar Superfund sites. Do new approaches need to be developed in the Superfund program to assess the extent of contamination, the resulting health and ecological risk, and possible remediation strategies where water and/or air have distributed contamination over extensive geographical areas?


David J. Tollerud (Chair) is professor of public health, medicine, and pharmacology/toxicology at the School of Public Health and Information Sciences, University of Louisville, and chair of the Department of Environ-

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