valid. At the same time, animal and human populations and their interfaces have changed and continue to change. The committee analyzed the current capabilities and limitations of the animal disease framework and identified the following 11 gaps that hinder effective prevention, detection, and diagnosis:
There is a lack of timely, appropriate, and necessary coordination and leadership among USDA, DOI, DHS, HHS, animal industries, and other responsible federal, state, and private entities.
Efforts for the rapid development, validation, and adoption of new technological tools for the detection, diagnosis, or prevention of animal diseases and zoonoses are lacking or inadequate.
The U.S. animal disease diagnostic system is not able to provide adequate capacity and capability for early detection of newly emergent, accidental, or intentionally introduced diseases.
The nation supports only limited multidisciplinary research to address prevention and detection of animal disease (both zoonotic and nonzoonotic) by studying factors related to pathogenesis, interspecies transmission, and ecology.
The number of BSL-3 facilities is inadequate, and the existing labs are not strategically located in the United States nor are they suitably equipped for research on diseases requiring biocontainment.
The United States is not sufficiently engaged with international partners to develop strategic approaches to preventing, detecting, and diagnosing animal diseases before they enter this country.
Federal policies and agencies have limited or ill-defined jurisdiction for the import, sale, and movement of exotic and wild-caught companion animals and of zoo specimens, creating a loophole, allowing a significant gap in preventing and detecting emergent diseases.
The nation lacks a formal and comprehensive-based science and risk analysis system for anticipating potential challenges to animal health and for use in policy decisions.
The supply of veterinarians in research, public health, food systems, ecosystem health, diagnostic laboratory investigation, and rural and/or food-animal practice is inadequate.
Education and training of those on the front lines for recognizing the signs of animal diseases is inadequate.
Little national consumer awareness or public investment in maintaining a viable animal health infrastructure exists.
Based on these gaps, the next chapter provides key opportunities to strengthen the framework to successfully prevent, detect, and diagnose animal diseases.