vergence of just some of these factors calls for a fundamental shift in how regulatory agencies, educators, livestock producers, and industry envision their roles. This report provides a starting point for addressing the needs for improved prevention, diagnosis, and detection. The two planned successor studies (the first one on surveillance and monitoring, the second on response and recovery) will build on the conclusions and recommendations presented in this report. In order to address and to begin building the infrastructure necessary to address critical needs for animal health, a new paradigm for strong leadership, vision, and transformational change will be key in developing dialogue and collaboration among stakeholders. Such collaboration will be important in establishing a mutual understanding that the country’s best interest is to be more visionary and strategic and to provide more direct support to efforts that focus on preventing disease rather than only combating disease. This involves:

  • Improved development and use of science and technology for prevention and detection.

  • Strengthened animal health laboratory networks.

  • Comprehensive research with partnered government, academic, and private sectors.

  • A coordinating mechanism for engaging partnerships among local, state, federal, and international agencies and the private sector.

  • Enhanced global systems for preventing, detecting, and diagnosing diseases.

  • A standardized approach for the import, sale, movement, and health of exotic and wild-caught animals.

  • Increased use of risk-based tools and models.

  • Increased veterinary capacity and capabilities.

  • Improved education and training opportunities for individuals responsible for day-to-day oversight of animals.

  • Increased awareness about the importance of maintaining animal health.

The evidence discussed in this report provides compelling support for both fundamental changes in the framework related to prevention, detection, and diagnosis of animal diseases and for the urgency in making these changes. The dynamics and realities of today’s world require long-term planning and decision making that is well integrated among stakeholders, including international experts and partners. U.S. agencies and stakeholders will have to make significant improvements in their scientific and technological acumen in order to be competitive and to maximize U.S. abilities to sustain and protect animal and public health. The

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