because those issues are within the purview of the proposed second phase of this study.

General Terminology

This report contains numerous technical terms and acronyms or abbreviations (see Appendix A for Acronyms and Abbreviations; Appendix B for Glossary of Terms). Some of the general terms used frequently throughout the report are provided in Box 1-3, and a couple of them warrant additional clarification. The Statement of Task (Box 1-1) refers to “first-line responders”—individuals who play a key role in disease detection. Throughout this report, these individuals are identified as those on the front lines of detection, as described in Box 1-3.

BOX 1-3
General Terminology Used in This Report

Animal Health Framework: The collection of organizations and participants in the public and private sectors directly responsible for maintaining the health of all animals impacted by animal disease or that influence its determinants.


Front-Line Detection: Almost anyone can play a role in front-line detection and prevention (e.g., a school bus driver who notices a sick animal in a nearby field), but front-line detection and prevention as used in this report refers specifically to those in a position most likely to be the first judge of an abnormal health situation in an animal or population and to initiate preventive action. They include people involved directly in animal production as well as field personnel involved in wildlife management. Those with close and direct animal contact and observation include ranch and farm workers, feeders, breeders, milkers, animal sales yard personnel, slaughterhouse inspectors, dealers, park rangers, zoo keepers, and companion animal owners.


Exotic Animal Disease: Any animal disease caused by a disease agent that does not naturally occur in the United States (e.g., SARS, monkeypox).


Foreign Animal Disease: An exotic animal disease limited to agricultural animals (e.g., foot-and-mouth disease, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, rinderpest).


Zoonoses: Diseases caused by infectious agents that can be transmitted between (or are shared by) animals and humans.



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