FIGURE 1-1 Interactions of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) with a continuum that includes wildlife, domestic animals, and human populations. Few diseases affect exclusively any one group, and the complex relations among host populations set the scene for disease emergence. Examples of EIDs that overlap these categories include Lyme disease (wildlife to domestic animals and humans) and rabies (all three categories). Companion animals are categorized in the domestic animal section of the continuum. Reprinted with permission from Daszak et al., Science 287:443-449 (2000). Copyright 2004, AAAS.

between 1997 and 2020, it is estimated that worldwide demand for meat may increase 55 percent (IFPRI, 2003). Increasing trade and the need to ensure food security underscore the dual objective in carrying out agricultural animal disease prevention and control initiatives: to evaluate imports so that domestic production is not put at greater risk of disease, and to ensure that such initiatives do not become a bottleneck for the flow of products, limit access to products, or hamper food security. Traditional programs have understood the first objective well, but the second role has received little attention.

The Interaction among Domestic Animals, Wildlife, and Humans

As illustrated in Figure 1-1, the animal health framework must now deal with a continuum of host-parasite relationships involving public



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