United Kingdom in 2000 related to BSE (lost trade, production, and other financial costs) of €5 billion (Otte et al., 2004). USDA estimates losses to the U.K. economy of $3.6–11.6 billion for FMD and $5.8 billion for BSE (USDA ERS, 2001). BSE is linked to variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) known to have caused 147 human deaths in the United Kingdom as of December 2004 (CJD Statistics, 2004).

In addition to known animal diseases from naturally occurring exposure is the added risk of disease that is spread with malicious intent (NRC, 2003a). Also, diseases associated with environmental disturbance or degradation are becoming more important. The effect of environmental contamination can affect domestic animal production, as well as the health of wildlife, and the value of hunting and fishing for recreation or livelihood.



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