ment in facilities to support veterinary education and research; HR 490 and HR 3348 and similar bills authorized a 3-year program of grants for construction of veterinary medical education facilities. Since that time, many reports have outlined changing research and educational needs and the impact on animal and human health (Pritchard, 1989; NRC, 1989; NRC 2002b; NRC, 2004).
The veterinary research enterprise must address a very large number and variety of animal genera, species, and breeds—from horses and mice to oysters and bison—and a vast array of challenges—from models to evaluate new human drugs to molecular dissection of agents of bioterrorism. Animals occupy an extraordinary number of different environments—from shrimp-rearing ponds to mouse cages and from wilderness areas to feed lots—and they meet diverse human needs—from models of human disease to competitive athletics and from service and companionship to esthetic pleasure and sources of food and livelihood for millions of Americans.
All the examples of critical research needs outlined in Chapter 3 require facilities (for example, laboratories, animal housing, and containment laboratories), infrastructure (for example, equipment and databases), financial resources, and well-educated research scientists. Research cannot be carried out effectively without all those physical, financial, and human resources. The goals of this chapter are to
Determine the extent to which the available resources outlined in Chapter 4 are sufficient to address the challenges, implement the strategies, and address the research priorities identified in Chapters 2 and 3.
Identify where current or future resources and activities are likely to be inadequate.
Recommend approaches to address the inadequacies.
Veterinary research aims to prevent, control, diagnose, and treat animal diseases to ensure animals’ health and welfare, and it contributes to both animal and human health, as illustrated in earlier chapters. Research in veterinary science and veterinary medicine as a whole are at the center of domestic and wild animal and human health (see Figure 1-1 in Chapter 1). Because veterinary research intersects human and animal health, it is interdisciplinary. Translational research aims to accelerate transformation of basic biological research from the bench to applications for animal and human patients in care by translating parallel learning applicable to biological systems across species and using new tools to gather information about the divergence of species to illuminate important differences. Translational research is needed to link basic-science discoveries to studies involving animals and human health. A disease that has been viewed at the molecu-