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Appendix D
Bioterrorism Agents

Bacterial and Viral Threat Agents Associated with Animals

Category A Diseases and Agents

Zoonotic

Foot-and-mouth disease (Picorna aphthovirus)

No

Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis)

Yes

Botulism (Clostridium botulinum toxin)

No

Plague (Yersinia pestis)

Yes

Smallpox (Variola major)

No

Tularemia (Francisella tularensis)

Yes

Viral hemorrhagic fevers (Ebola, Marburg, Lassa, Machupo viruses)

No

Category B Diseases and Agents

Zoonotic

Brucellosis (Brucella spp.)

Yes

Epsilon toxin of Clostridium perfringens

No

Food safety threats (Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella)

Yes

Glanders (Burkholderia mallei)

Yes

Melioidosis (Burkholderia pseudomallei)

Yes

Psittacosis (Chlamydia psittaci)

Yes

Q fever (Coxiella burnetii)

Yes

Ricin toxin

No

Staphylococcal enterotoxin B

No

Typhus fever (Rikettsia prowazekii)

No

Viral encephalitis (VEE, EEE, and WEE viruses)

Yes

Water threats (Vibrio cholerae, Cryptosporidium parvum)

Yes

SOURCE: NRC 2002a, 2003a.



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OCR for page 191
Critical Needs for Research in Veterinary Science Appendix D Bioterrorism Agents Bacterial and Viral Threat Agents Associated with Animals Category A Diseases and Agents Zoonotic Foot-and-mouth disease (Picorna aphthovirus) No Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) Yes Botulism (Clostridium botulinum toxin) No Plague (Yersinia pestis) Yes Smallpox (Variola major) No Tularemia (Francisella tularensis) Yes Viral hemorrhagic fevers (Ebola, Marburg, Lassa, Machupo viruses) No Category B Diseases and Agents Zoonotic Brucellosis (Brucella spp.) Yes Epsilon toxin of Clostridium perfringens No Food safety threats (Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella) Yes Glanders (Burkholderia mallei) Yes Melioidosis (Burkholderia pseudomallei) Yes Psittacosis (Chlamydia psittaci) Yes Q fever (Coxiella burnetii) Yes Ricin toxin No Staphylococcal enterotoxin B No Typhus fever (Rikettsia prowazekii) No Viral encephalitis (VEE, EEE, and WEE viruses) Yes Water threats (Vibrio cholerae, Cryptosporidium parvum) Yes SOURCE: NRC 2002a, 2003a.

OCR for page 191
Critical Needs for Research in Veterinary Science High-Consequence Livestock Pathogens and Toxins USDA-Only Agents and Toxinsa USDA-HHS Overlap Agents and Toxinsb African horse sickness virus Bacillus anthracis African swine fever virus Botulinum neurotoxin Akabane virus Botulinum neurotoxin-producing species of Clostridium Avian influenza virus (highly pathogenic) Brucella abortus Bluetongue virus (exotic) Brucella melitensis Bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent Brucella suis Camel pox virus Burkholderia mallei Classical swine fever virus Burkolderia pseudonallei Cowdria ruminantium (Heartwater) Clostridium botulinum Foot-and-mouth disease virus Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin Goat pox virus Coccidioides immitis Japanese encephalitis virus Coxiella burnetii Lumpy skin disease virus Eastern equine encephalitis virus Malignant catarrhal fever virus (exotic) Franscisella tulanrensis Menangle virus Hendra virus Mycoplasma capricolum/M.38/ Nipah virus M.mycoides capri (contagious caprine—pleuropneumonia)   Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides (contagious bovine pleuropneumonia) Rift Valley fever virus Newcastle disease virus (VVND) Shigatoxin Peste des petits ruminants virus Staphylococcus enterotoxins Rinderpest virus T-2 toxin Sheep pox virus Venezulan equine encephalitis virus Swine vesicular disease virus   Vesicular stomatitis virus (exotic)   aSelect agents and toxins that are only the USDA list of high-consequence livestock pathogens and toxins. bSelect agents and toxins that are on the USDA list of high-consequence livestock pathogens and toxins and on the HHS list of select agents and toxins. SOURCE: USDA-APHIS