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BOX 2-1
Subdisciplines of Veterinary Research that are Critical to Improving Public Health and Food Safety, and Animal Health and Advancing Comparative Medicine

Public Health and Food Safety

  • Food Safety

  • Biosecurity

Animal Health and Welfare

  • Food-Producing Animals

  • Aquaculture

  • Companion Animals

  • Laboratory Animals

  • Wildlife and Conservation

Comparative Medicine

  • Animal Modeling

  • Emerging Areas of Research in Comparative Medicine

Emerging Issues

  • Emerging Infectious Diseases

  • Ecosystem Health

  • Social Policies, Societal Needs and Expectations

  • Exotic and Caged Pet Medicine

the ingestion of food. They are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality in the United States, responsible for an estimated 76 million illnesses, 325,000 hospitalizations, and 5,000 deaths a year (Mead et al., 1999). Animals—both domesticated and wild—are frequent reservoirs of foodborne pathogens that can cause human illness and animals are among the most common vehicles of enteric bacterial infections in humans (http://www.cdc.gov/foodnet/). For example, more than 70% of sporadic Campylobacter infections in the United States have been associated with eating foods of animal origin or contact with animals (Friedman et al., 2004). Eating contaminated poultry products is largely responsible for cases of Salmonella enteritidis infection (Kimura et al., 2004). Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections are associated principally with eating products of bovine origin, contact with ruminants, and consumption of water contaminated with bovine feces (Kennedy et al., 2002; Kassenborg et al., 2004). Primary risk factors for multiple drug-resistant Salmonella newport infections are contact with cattle and consumption of bovine products (Gupta et al., 2003). Most of those microorganisms are commensals that reside in the animal gastrointestinal tract and cause no apparent symptoms of illness and had no adverse effects on weight gain or milk or egg production. Most foodborne pathogen infections have no effect on



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