SEA BASING

ENSURING JOINT FORCE ACCESS FROM THE SEA

Committee on Sea Basing: Ensuring Joint Force Access from the Sea

Naval Studies Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
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Sea Basing: Ensuring Joint Force Access from the Sea SEA BASING ENSURING JOINT FORCE ACCESS FROM THE SEA Committee on Sea Basing: Ensuring Joint Force Access from the Sea Naval Studies Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Sea Basing: Ensuring Joint Force Access from the Sea THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract No. N00014-00-G-0230, DO #21, between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of the Navy. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-09517-4 Additional copies of this report are available from: Naval Studies Board, National Research Council, The Keck Center of the National Academies, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Room WS904, Washington, DC 20001; and The National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2005 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Sea Basing: Ensuring Joint Force Access from the Sea THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Sea Basing: Ensuring Joint Force Access from the Sea COMMITTEE ON SEA BASING: ENSURING JOINT FORCE ACCESS FROM THE SEA HARRY W. JENKINS, JR., ITT Industries, Co-chair RICHARD L. WADE, Exponent, Co-chair JEFFERY P. BENNETT, LMI ALAN BERMAN, Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University PAUL BEVILAQUA, Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company E. RICHARD DIAMOND, JR., Raytheon Integrated Defense Systems STEVEN W. FLOHR, Madison, Alabama WESLEY L. HARRIS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology GEORGE B. HARRISON, Georgia Tech Research Institute KEVIN F. KELLY, Northrop Grumman Ship Systems RONALD K. KISS, Webb Institute JOHN B. LaPLANTE, Poland, Ohio HENRY S. MARCUS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology IRWIN MENDELSON, Delray Beach, Florida WILLIAM B. MORGAN, Rockville, Maryland JOHN H. MOXLEY III, Korn/Ferry International ROBERT G. SPRIGG, General Dynamics/Bath Iron Works JENNIFER P. WHITLOCK, The Boeing Company Staff CHARLES F. DRAPER, Naval Studies Board Acting Director (as of July 12, 2003) ARUL MOZHI, Study Director MARY G. GORDON, Information Officer SUSAN G. CAMPBELL, Administrative Coordinator IAN M. CAMERON, Research Associate SEYMOUR J. DEITCHMAN, Consultant SIDNEY G. REED, JR., Consultant RAYMOND S. WIDMAYER, Consultant

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Sea Basing: Ensuring Joint Force Access from the Sea NAVAL STUDIES BOARD JOHN F. EGAN, Nashua, New Hampshire, Chair MIRIAM E. JOHN, Sandia National Laboratories, Vice Chair ARTHUR B. BAGGEROER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOHN D. CHRISTIE, LMI ANTONIO L. ELIAS, Orbital Sciences Corporation BRIG “CHIP” ELLIOTT, BBN Technologies KERRIE L. HOLLEY, IBM Global Services JOHN W. HUTCHINSON, Harvard University HARRY W. JENKINS, JR., ITT Industries DAVID V. KALBAUGH, Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University ANNETTE J. KRYGIEL, Great Falls, Virginia THOMAS V. McNAMARA, Charles Stark Draper Laboratory L. DAVID MONTAGUE, Menlo Park, California WILLIAM B. MORGAN, Rockville, Maryland JOHN H. MOXLEY III, Korn/Ferry International JOHN S. QUILTY, Oakton, Virginia NILS R. SANDELL, JR., BAE Systems WILLIAM D. SMITH, Fayetteville, Pennsylvania JOHN P. STENBIT, Oakton, Virginia RICHARD L. WADE, Exponent DAVID A. WHELAN, The Boeing Company CINDY WILLIAMS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ELIHU ZIMET, National Defense University Navy Liaison Representatives RADM JOSEPH A. SESTAK, JR., USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N81 (through October 1, 2004) GREG MELCHER, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, Acting N81 (from October 2, 2004, through November 8, 2004) RADM SAMUEL J. LOCKLEAR III, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N81 (as of November 8, 2004) RADM JAY M. COHEN, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N091

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Sea Basing: Ensuring Joint Force Access from the Sea Marine Corps Liaison Representative LTGEN EDWARD HANLON, JR., USMC, Commanding General, Marine Corps Combat Development Command (through September 30, 2004) LTGEN JAMES N. MATTIS, USMC, Commanding General, Marine Corps Combat Development Command (as of October 1, 2004) Staff RONALD D. TAYLOR, Director (on leave from July 12, 2003) CHARLES F. DRAPER, Acting Director (as of July 12, 2003) ARUL MOZHI, Senior Program Officer MARY G. GORDON, Information Officer SUSAN G. CAMPBELL, Administrative Coordinator IAN M. CAMERON, Research Associate

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Sea Basing: Ensuring Joint Force Access from the Sea Preface In response to the evolving U.S. national security posture, the Navy and Marine Corps promulgated a naval vision entitled Naval Power 21, based in part on “assuring sea based [emphasis added] access worldwide for military operations, diplomatic interaction, and humanitarian relief efforts.”1 More importantly, Sea Basing “projects the sovereignty of the United States globally while providing joint force commanders with vital command and control, fire support, and logistics from the sea, thereby minimizing vulnerable assets ashore.”2 Thus, Sea Basing represents a force-entry concept with potential for U.S. and coalition military forces in various regions of the world, thereby affecting the strategic landscape from which these forces will ultimately project power. Recent events in Kosovo, Afghanistan, and Iraq have underlined the fact that the availability of land bases during conflicts may be uncertain owing to physical or political factors that delay, limit, or prevent their use. In many future military situations, the assumption of readily available, secure land bases is likely to be open to question, although one can make the argument that the Naval Services operate from a sea base of sorts today. 1   Hon. Gordon England, Secretary of the Navy; ADM Vern Clark, USN, Chief of Naval Operations; and Gen James L. Jones, USMC, Commandant of the Marine Corps. 2002. Naval Power 21, Department of Defense, Washington, D.C., p. 1. 2   Hon. Gordon England, Secretary of the Navy; ADM Vern Clark, USN, Chief of Naval Operations; and Gen James L. Jones, USMC, Commandant of the Marine Corps. 2002. Naval Power 21, Department of Defense, Washington, D.C., p. 5.

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Sea Basing: Ensuring Joint Force Access from the Sea Specifically, Carrier Battle Groups (CVBGs) carry a certain amount of organic sustainment that supports their power-projection mission. Amphibious Ready Groups (ARGs) carry 10 to 15 days’ worth of all classes of supplies that sustain initial operations by Marines ashore. Both the CVBGs and the ARGs, or the new Carrier Strike Groups and Expeditionary Strike Groups as recently promulgated by the Chief of Naval Operations and the Commandant of the Marine Corps,3 are reinforced at sea (if required) by the Navy’s combat logistics force ships and the three Maritime Prepositioning Force (MPF) squadrons. The MPF squadrons, each carrying a 30-day supply of equipment for a 16,000-person brigade force, can support operations ashore if larger Marine Air Ground Task Forces, at the Marine Expeditionary Brigade and Marine Expeditionary Force levels, are required to support larger assigned missions. Unfortunately, it is difficult to off-load the three MPF squadrons except in port, and therefore they have minimal in-stream logistics capability otherwise when deployed. Connectors that enable Sea Basing are an issue related to its implementation. For example, the connectors to move forces from facilities in the continental United States (CONUS) to advanced bases so that forces could eventually marry up with material, and ultimately to move forward forces and material to military objectives, are a crucial facet of Sea Basing. Recently, the Navy and the Army have experimented with high-speed ferry ships that have some capabilities as connectors. Most recently, the Defense Science Board (DSB) Task Force on Sea Basing concluded that Sea Basing will be a critical future joint military capability and that it will help ensure access to areas in which U.S. military forces might be denied access to support facilities.4 In addition, the DSB concluded that it will be essential for the Department of Defense (DOD) to undertake a spiral development approach—one that accounts for evolution from current capabilities to tomorrow’s needs. In recommending such an approach, the DSB identified 12 issues for the realization of Sea Basing: 6 relate to management, planning, and resources, and the remaining 6 are grouped as new capabilities, some of which include issues relating to the connectors needed for enabling Sea Basing. Among the 6 new capabilities, the DSB identified 3 as important needs for the implementation of Sea Basing: (1) the capability to handle cargo in rough seas, characteristic of many likely areas of operations; (2) a heavy-lift aircraft (able to transport more than 20 tons) with theater-wide range that can be based at sea; and (3) ships whose design incorporates all of the requirements of the sea base system of systems. 3   ADM Vern Clark, USN, Chief of Naval Operations; and Gen Michael W. Hagee, USMC, Commandant of the Marine Corps. 2003. Naval Operating Concept for Joint Operations, Department of Defense, Washington, D.C., September 22, p. 7. 4   Defense Science Board. 2003. Defense Science Board Task Force on Sea Basing, Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, Washington, D.C., August.

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Sea Basing: Ensuring Joint Force Access from the Sea In April 2004, the Department of the Navy requested that the National Research Council (NRC), under the auspices of the Naval Studies Board, convene a workshop to assess the science and technology base, both inside and outside the Department of the Navy, for developing Sea Basing, and that it identify research priorities for supporting future Sea Basing concepts. The terms of reference of the workshop are provided below. MajGen Harry W. Jenkins, Jr., USMC (retired), of ITT Industries, and Richard L. Wade of Exponent co-chaired the Committee on Sea Basing: Ensuring Joint Force Access from the Sea. Biographical information on the committee membership and the NRC staff is presented in Appendix A. The purpose of the committee’s brief effort differs from that of the DSB’s more extensive study. The present report can help the Department of the Navy focus better on what it needs to do, whereas the broader DSB effort addresses the needs of the entire Department of Defense. The committee did not intend to enlarge upon, augment, or replace the DSB work, but rather to form some independent judgments, based on the experience and backgrounds that the committee members brought to the workshop that it held in September 2004 (see Appendix B) and on the information that was given to the committee by the Services and the DOD. Also, in the limited amount of time available for this review, it was not possible to study aircraft and ship design problems in any depth. Thus, it was necessary to rely heavily on the judgments of the workshop participants, which were based on their prior knowledge of the ship and aircraft design issues and the possible solutions to them. TERMS OF REFERENCE At the request of the Department of the Navy, the Naval Studies Board of the National Research Council convened a workshop to assess the science and technology base, both inside and outside the Department of the Navy, for developing Sea Basing, and to identify research priorities for supporting future Sea Basing concepts. Specifically, the workshop addressed the following:5 Current and future naval operational concepts related to Sea Basing, including plans for, opportunities from, and limitations of Sea Basing; and A technology roadmap with anticipated time horizons for the realization of the following: (1) the capability to handle cargo in heavy sea states; (2) a long-range, heavy-lift aircraft (able to transport more than 20 tons) based at sea; and (3) ship classes and warfare systems that support open architecture design considerations. 5   Because of the limited nature of this effort, a number of topics could not be addressed: for example, the Mobile Offshore Base, modularity of logistics units, medical logistics, dependency on environmental predictions, and tactical trade-offs to accommodate logistics results.

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Sea Basing: Ensuring Joint Force Access from the Sea In addition, the committee was tasked to assess the feasibility of the Naval Studies Board’s conducting a future study on Sea Basing aimed at identifying the Department of the Navy’s broader needs for developing a Sea Basing capability to support naval (and joint) force operations.6 STUDY WORKSHOP AND REPORT PREPARATION The committee conducted a 4-day workshop—September 7-10, 2004—at the Keck Center of the National Academies in Washington, D.C. (see Appendix B for the workshop agenda). During the workshop, the committee heard presentations from the Department of the Navy, the U.S. Army, the Office of the Secretary of Defense, and industry. The committee then outlined an initial draft report. The months between the workshop and the publication of this report were spent preparing the draft manuscript, gathering additional information, reviewing and responding to external review comments, editing the report, and conducting the required security review to produce a public report. 6   To address this task, the committee identified a number of studies that should be performed in a joint context in order to fix the proposed design and operating parameters of the sea base and airborne and seaborne connectors.

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Sea Basing: Ensuring Joint Force Access from the Sea Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Roy R. Buehler, Mableton, Georgia, Roy C. Evans, Jr., The MITRE Corporation, Edward A. Frieman, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, Peter A. Gale, J.J. McMullen Associates, Michael P. Kalleres, Jacksonville, Florida, J. Randolph Paulling, Geyserville, California, Edward Petrushka, Fort Worth, Texas, and John E. Rhodes, Balboa, California. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by William G. Howard, Jr., Scottsdale, Arizona.

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Sea Basing: Ensuring Joint Force Access from the Sea Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Sea Basing: Ensuring Joint Force Access from the Sea Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   REVIEW OF SEA BASING CONCEPTS   10      Naval Operating Concept for Joint Operations,   11      Implementation of Sea Basing Capabilities,   13      Conclusions and Recommendation,   14 2   LONG-RANGE HEAVY-LIFT AIRCRAFT TO ENABLE SEA BASING   17      Sea Basing Concept,   17      Airlift Requirements for Sea Basing,   17      Heavy-Lift Transport Aircraft Alternatives,   25      Development Steps,   30      Conclusions and Recommendations,   31 3   NEW SHIP CLASSES FOR SEA BASING   33      Background,   33      Classes of Ships,   33      Conclusions and Recommendations,   41

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Sea Basing: Ensuring Joint Force Access from the Sea 4   OPEN-OCEAN CARGO TRANSFER TO AND FROM A SEA BASE   44      Background,   44      Current Status of the Science and Technology Base and Technology Gaps,   47      Anticipated Time Horizons for the Technologies,   55      Tasks for the Future: The Way Ahead,   56      Conclusions and Recommendations,   57 5   A SYSTEM-OF-SYSTEMS ENGINEERING APPROACH FOR JOINT SEA BASING   59      Background,   59      Main Elements of a System-of-Systems Approach,   60      System-Wide Issues for the Sea Basing Concept,   62      Value of a System-of-Systems Approach to Achieving Joint Sea Basing Capability,   64      Recommendations,   64     APPENDIXES         A   Committee and Staff Biographies   71     B   Agenda for the Committee’s Meeting   79     C   Acronyms and Abbreviations   84