Continued attention to the development of a nuclear security culture is essential to the indigenization of MPC&A programs.

DOE has made a good start in creating greater awareness among Russian officials and specialists of the importance of protecting nuclear material through education, training exercises, exchange of information and best practices, and incentive programs. DOE should continue to give these programs special attention.

In sum, Russia and the United States have unique nuclear experience and they have an obligation to use that experience to prevent a nuclear catastrophe from occuring anywhere in the world. The first priority for each country therefore, is to ensure that weapon-usable material in its own possession is under adequate security. The cooperative MPC&A program provides an important mechanism for enhancing the security of material throughout the Russian nuclear complex. But such cooperation will be limited in its effect unless Russia continues to maintain adequate security systems in the decades ahead. If they fail, the result could be a nuclear disaster. The job initiated through the cooperative program must be finished correctly, rapidly, and in a manner that facilitates the transition of full responsibility to the Russian Federation.

Fortunately, since this study was initiated in 2003, the DOE management team has devoted increased attention and resources to issues of indigenization, a positive trend that should be continued and expanded.

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