J
Russian Federal Target Program on Nuclear and Radiation Safety in Russia for 2000–20061

AFFIRMED

By resolution of the Government Of the Russian Federation

February 22, 2000, No. 149


FEDERAL TARGETED PROGRAM ON NUCLEAR AND RADIATION SAFETY AND SECURITY IN RUSSIA2 FOR 2000-2006


BASIC INFORMATION

Program Name

Federal Targeted Program on Nuclear and Radiation Safety in Russia for 2000-2006

Basis for Development of Program

Order No. Pr-2214 of the President of Russia, dated December 11, 1996

1  

This Russian resolution provided to the committee by Russian experts in March 2004.

2  

In Russian, the same word is used for safety and for security. Translated from the Russian by Kelly Robbins.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 87
Strengthening Long-Term Nuclear Security: Protecting Weapon-Usable Material in Russia J Russian Federal Target Program on Nuclear and Radiation Safety in Russia for 2000–20061 AFFIRMED By resolution of the Government Of the Russian Federation February 22, 2000, No. 149 FEDERAL TARGETED PROGRAM ON NUCLEAR AND RADIATION SAFETY AND SECURITY IN RUSSIA2 FOR 2000-2006 BASIC INFORMATION Program Name Federal Targeted Program on Nuclear and Radiation Safety in Russia for 2000-2006 Basis for Development of Program Order No. Pr-2214 of the President of Russia, dated December 11, 1996 1   This Russian resolution provided to the committee by Russian experts in March 2004. 2   In Russian, the same word is used for safety and for security. Translated from the Russian by Kelly Robbins.

OCR for page 87
Strengthening Long-Term Nuclear Security: Protecting Weapon-Usable Material in Russia State Contractor–Program Coordinator Russian Federation Ministry of Atomic Energy State Contractors on Program Russian Federation Ministry of Atomic Energy; Russian Federation Ministry on Civil Defense, Extreme Situations, and Elimination of the Consequences of Natural Disasters; Russian Federation Ministry of Health; Russian Federation Ministry of Science and Technology; Russian Federation Ministry of Economics; Russian Federation State Committee on Environmental Protection; Russian Shipbuilding Agency; Russian Federal Inspectorate on Nuclear and Radiation Security Primary Executors of Program Scientific research and experimental design organizations and enterprises of the Russian Federation Ministry of Atomic Energy; Russian Federation Ministry of Internal Affairs; Russian Federation Ministry on Civil Defense, Extreme Situations, and Elimination of the Consequences of Natural Disasters; Russian Federation Ministry of Health; Russian Federation Ministry of Defense; Russian Federation Ministry of Education; Russian Federation Ministry of Natural Resources; Russian Federation Ministry of Railways; Russian Federation Ministry of Agriculture and Food; Russian Federation Ministry of Fuel and Energy; Russian Federation Ministry of Transportation; Russian Federation Ministry of Economics; Russian Federation Ministry of Justice; Russian Federation State Committee on Environmental Protection; Russian Federation State Committee on Standardization and Metrology; Russian Federation State Committee on Construction and the Housing and Public Utilities Complex; Russian Federation State Committee on Customs; Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring; Russian Federation Federal Security Service; Russian Federal Forestry Service; Russian Shipbuilding Agency; Russian Federal Inspectorate for Nuclear and Radiation Security; Federal Administration for Medical-Biological and Emergency Problems of the Russian Federation Ministry of Healthcare; Russian Academy of Sciences; Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences; Russian Academy of Medical Sciences; Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences; the Kurchatov Institute Russian Science Center; and other organizations as determined on a competitive basis in accordance with the Federal Law on Competitions for the Awarding of Orders to Supply Goods, Complete Work, and Provide Services to Meet State Needs Primary Developers of Program Russian Federation Ministry of Atomic Energy; Academician A. I. Leipunsky Institute of Physics and Power Engineering State Science Center Goal and Basic Objectives of Program The goal of the Program is to comprehensively address problems of ensuring the nuclear and radiation safety of the state with the aim of reducing to a socially acceptable level the risk of radiation effects on humans and their living environment arising from the operation of atomic energy facilities and natural and manufactured sources of ionizing radiation.

OCR for page 87
Strengthening Long-Term Nuclear Security: Protecting Weapon-Usable Material in Russia   The basic objectives of the Program are as follows:   Comprehensively addressing problems related to the management of radioactive wastes and spent nuclear materials in order to prevent their harmful impact on humans and the environment Ensuring nuclear and radiation safety at enterprises involved in the nuclear fuel cycle Ensuring safety for active and decommissioned atomic power stations, experimental and research reactors, and critical and subcritical stands Developing promising means of using atomic energy while ensuring an increased level of nuclear and radiation safety, including by replacing more environmentally dangerous technologies Improving the system for training, retraining, and professional development for personnel in the atomic energy field Developing the system for state accounting and control of nuclear materials and the system for state accounting and control of radioactive substances and radioactive wastes Improving the physical protection of nuclear materials, nuclear facilities, and nuclear material storage sites Ensuring nuclear and radiation safety at shipbuilding enterprises during the construction, repair, and dismantlement of atomic submarines and nuclear-powered ships of the Russian Navy as well as nuclear-powered ships and nuclear maintenance ships of the Russian Federation Ministry of Transportation Ensuring the readiness of management agencies and the forces and means of territorial and functional subsystems of the unified state system for preventing and eliminating the consequences of extreme situations so that they can accomplish objectives related to preventing and eliminating the consequences of radiation-related extreme situations within the Russian Federation Improving existing technologies and developing new ones for rehabilitating territories and industrial facilities subjected to radioactive contamination Improving state monitoring of the radiation situation within the Russian Federation Ensuring radiation safety with regard to the operation of industrial enterprises that use materials containing natural radionuclides Developing and improving the system of medical-sanitary service and labor protection for workers at nuclear and radiation hazard facilities and for risk groups in the population subjected to increased levels of radiation effects Managing informational-analytical databases with regard to protecting the health of the population and atomic energy industry workers against the effects of various sources of ionizing radiation Developing methods and means for the long-term prediction of the safe operation of atomic energy facilities with regard to their safety to humanity and the environment Developing and implementing federal norms and rules on atomic energy use to establish requirements for nuclear and radiation safety (technical and sanitary-hygienic aspects), physical protection, and accounting and control of nuclear materials, radioactive substances, and radioactive wastes

OCR for page 87
Strengthening Long-Term Nuclear Security: Protecting Weapon-Usable Material in Russia Terms and Stages of Program Implementation 2000–2006 Stage I: 2000-2001 Stage II: 2002-2003 Stage III: 2004-2006 List of Subprograms The Program includes 20 subprograms:   Management of radioactive wastes and spent nuclear materials, including their reprocessing and burial Safety of the Russian atomic industry Safety of atomic power stations and nuclear research reactors New generation atomic power stations and nuclear reactors with increased safety features Improvement of the system for training, retraining, and professional development of personnel Organization of the system of state accounting and control of nuclear materials and the system of state accounting and control of radioactive substances and radioactive wastes Nuclear and radiation safety at shipbuilding industry enterprises Protection of the population and territories from the consequences of possible radiation accidents Methodological support for activities to protect the population and rehabilitate territories subjected to radioactive contamination Creation of a unified automated state system for monitoring the radiation situation in the territory of the Russian Federation Reducing the level of radiation exposure to the population and technogenous contamination of the environment due to natural radionuclides Organization of a unified state system for control and accounting of individual doses of radiation received by citizens and the health status of risk groups in the population who have been subjected to increased levels of radiation effects Organization of a system of medical care and labor protection for workers subjected to radiation at their work sites Organization of a system of medical care for persons from risk groups in the population who have been subjected to increased levels of radiation effects Provision of specialized medical care in connection with eliminating the consequences of radiation accidents Means and methods of studying and analyzing the effects of nuclear and radiation hazard facilities on the environment and humanity Methods of analyzing and providing scientific justification for the safety of facilities presenting nuclear and radiation danger Strategy for ensuring the nuclear and radiation safety of Russia Development of federal norms and rules on nuclear safety and radiation safety (technical aspects) Development of federal norms and rules on radiation safety (sanitary-hygienic aspects)

OCR for page 87
Strengthening Long-Term Nuclear Security: Protecting Weapon-Usable Material in Russia Volume and Sources of Program Funding The volume of funding for the Program is 7,616,330,000 rubles3 (not including funds from the budgets of Russian Federation subjects, the volume of which is determined during the course of Program implementation)   Sources of funding:   Federal budget funds – 6,066,330,000 rubles, of which 2,075,550,000 rubles are to be spent on scientific research and experimental design work, 3,410,700,000 rubles on investment expenses, and 580,080,000 rubles on other costs Non-budget sources – 1,550,000,000 rubles (to be spent on various measures to the extent they are received) Expected End Results of Program Implementation Development and use of modern technologies for safe operations in the management of radioactive wastes and spent nuclear materials and the reprocessing and reliable isolation of radioactive wastes and spent nuclear materials Development and implementation at nuclear fuel cycle enterprises of nuclear-, radiation-, explosive-, and fire-safe technologies as well as safer equipment Improvement of systems which diagnose the operational status of units and equipment at atomic power stations and nuclear research reactors as well as an increase in the technical quality of their maintenance and servicing Development of designs for promising new nuclear reactors for various purposes and types with increased levels of nuclear and radiation safety and improved technical and economic characteristics Training of operating personnel at atomic energy facilities using modern technical means created for this purpose and on the basis of educational-methodological innovations including elements of psychological preparation of personnel for operations under extreme conditions Creation and operation of the system of state accounting and control of nuclear materials and the state system of accounting and control of radioactive substances and radioactive wastes Prevention of nuclear terrorism and reduction of the likelihood of losses, thefts, and unauthorized use of nuclear materials Development of planning and design documentation and technological blueprints for ensuring nuclear and radiation safety during the dismantlement of the reactor blocks from atomic submarines and ships and during the handling of nuclear fuel and radioactive wastes at shipbuilding industry enterprises Reduction of the risk of exceeding allowable radiation dose limits to the population, minimization of the number of exposed individuals and radiation doses in the event of radiation accidents, and reduction of the consequences of such accidents for territories and industrial facilities 3   This was equivalent to $264 million at the 2/22/00 exchange rate.

OCR for page 87
Strengthening Long-Term Nuclear Security: Protecting Weapon-Usable Material in Russia   Return to productive use of industrial facilities, agricultural lands, and other territories subjected to radioactive contamination as a result of defense program operations or radiation-related extreme situations Development and operation of a modern unified automated state system for monitoring the radiation situation within the territory of the Russian Federation Reduction of the human irradiation level from natural radionuclides at home and on the job and reduction of technogenic contamination of the environment by such materials Development of modern methods and equipment for conducting medical investigations, prophylaxis, and treatment of workers at nuclear and radiation hazard facilities and of risk groups in the population who have been subjected to increased levels of radiation effects Creation and operation of a unified state system for control and accounting of individual radiation doses received by citizens; establishment of a state radiation epidemiological registry of persons who have suffered from radiation effects and have been subjected to radiation exposure as a result of Chernobyl and other radiation catastrophes and incidents; operation of a unified medical-dosimetric registry for atomic industry workers; and preparation of radiation-hygiene data sheets on organizations and territories Development of a scientifically grounded long-term strategy for ensuring nuclear and radiation safety for humanity and the environment while using atomic energy in various sectors of the economy, medicine, and scientific research Improvement of the regulatory and legal base with regard to defining requirements for the safe use of atomic energy in various sectors of the economy, medicine, and scientific research System for Monitoring Program Implementation Activities to implement Program measures are coordinated by the Russian Federation Ministry of Atomic Energy. Program implementation is monitored according to procedures established for monitoring the implementation of federal targeted programs. EXPLANATION OF PROBLEM AND BASIS FOR THE NEED TO RESOLVE IT USING PROGRAMMATIC METHODS The Federal Targeted Program on Nuclear and Radiation Safety in Russia (hereafter referred to as the Program) was developed in accordance with Order No. Pr-2214 of the President of the Russian Federation, dated December 11, 1996. As a result of the production of nuclear weapons materials, the operation of nuclear power plants, the activities of nuclear fuel cycle enterprises, the operation of nuclear submarines and nuclear-powered ships, and other types of activities related to the use of atomic energy in the Russian Federation, a significant amount of radioactive wastes and spent nuclear fuel has accumulated, and its management presents a serious problem. An unfavorable radiation situation developed in areas that have suffered

OCR for page 87
Strengthening Long-Term Nuclear Security: Protecting Weapon-Usable Material in Russia from accidents at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant and other nuclear and radiation hazard facilities, as well as in areas where nuclear-powered ships are dismantled. In connection with the further development of atomic energy, the use of atomic energy for civilian and defense purposes, and the use of ionizing radiation sources in medicine, industry, and agriculture, ensuring nuclear and radiation safety is becoming one of the most important elements of the national security of the state. The complexity involved in addressing this problem arises from the fact that in the past the necessary attention was not paid to developing a methodology for the comprehensive analysis of questions related to Russia’s nuclear and radiation security and the long-term forecasting of its status. Under present conditions, the goal of state policy must be to minimize radiation effects on humanity and its living environment by significantly increasing the safety of existing and planned atomic energy facilities, ensuring the safe management of radioactive wastes and spent nuclear materials, and taking special measures for the radiation protection of the population, the rehabilitation of contaminated territories, and the physical protection of nuclear materials and nuclear facilities. The problem of Russia’s nuclear and radiation safety and security demands a unified approach at the state level to evaluate the danger of hazardous radiation facilities and develop measures and criteria for ensuring that their operations are safe for humanity and the environment. The Program’s system of criteria for ensuring the safety of humanity and its living environment is formed on the basis of the concept of socially acceptable risk, which is applicable to any type of natural or technogenic effect on humanity and the environment, including those associated with atomic energy and ionizing radiation. The socially acceptable condition in the assessment of the risk of possible serious accidents involving a catastrophic level of radioactive emissions is the complete exclusion of the possibility of such accidents. In cases of possible radiation incidents, social measures must be planned to protect the population and organize its day-to-day activities under conditions of increased radiation effects. Tasks related to ensuring nuclear and radiation safety at present are addressed within the framework of numerous federal targeted programs (Management of Radioactive Wastes and Spent Nuclear Materials and Their Reprocessing and Burial for 1996-2005, Creation of a Unified Automated State System for Monitoring the Radiation Situation within the Territory of the Russian Federation, and so forth) as well as programs by various federal executive-branch agencies and executive branch agencies of Russian Federation subjects. The lack of coordination among these programs leads to duplication on a number of issues studied in the programs. The measures in certain programs only indirectly touch on nuclear and radiation safety, and there is a lack of a common

OCR for page 87
Strengthening Long-Term Nuclear Security: Protecting Weapon-Usable Material in Russia understanding of principles and criteria in the area of nuclear and radiation safety. The situation is also complicated by the lack of appropriate funding. These circumstances create the need for resolving the problem of ensuring nuclear and radiation safety by programmatic-targeted methods by including all aspects of this problem being addressed today under separate programs into a unified federal targeted program. In order to carry out this Program, plans call for coordinated activities by interested federal executive branch agencies, executive branch agencies of Russian Federation subjects, and organizations regardless of their form of ownership. Comprehensive efforts to address the problem of ensuring nuclear and radiation safety within the Program framework will make it possible to cut expenditures of federal budget funds by eliminating duplication of measures called for in a number of existing programs, focusing efforts on top priority objectives in this area by applying modern methods and means of analysis and forecasting, and developing a long-term strategy for ensuring the nuclear and radiation safety and security of the state. Ensuring nuclear and radiation safety and security at enterprises in the nuclear weapons complex is carried out in conjunction with the Program. Specific measures are implemented and financed in accordance with the resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation that was adopted on this question. Matters related to the rendering of social assistance to members of the population subjected to radiation effects in various regions of the Russian Federation are resolved within the framework of existing presidential and federal targeted programs, the state contractor of which is the Russian Federation Ministry on Civil Defense, Extreme Situations, and Elimination of the Consequences of Natural Disasters. GOAL AND OBJECTIVES OF THE PROGRAM The primary goal of the Program is to comprehensively address the problem of ensuring the nuclear and radiation safety and security of the state with the aim of reducing to a socially acceptable level, the risk of radiation effects on humanity and its living environment due to the use of atomic energy and technogenic and natural sources of ionizing radiation. In order to achieve this goal, it is necessary to accomplish the following basic objectives: comprehensively resolving the problem of the management of radioactive wastes and spent nuclear materials in order to prevent their harmful impact on humanity and the environment ensuring the nuclear and radiation safety of nuclear fuel cycle enterprises ensuring the safety of existing and decommissioned atomic power stations, experimental and research reactors, and critical and subcritical stands

OCR for page 87
Strengthening Long-Term Nuclear Security: Protecting Weapon-Usable Material in Russia developing promising means of using atomic energy while ensuring an increased level of nuclear and radiation safety, including by replacing more environmentally dangerous technologies improving the system of training, retraining, and professional development for atomic energy industry personnel developing the system of state accounting and control of nuclear materials and the system of state accounting and control of radioactive substances and radioactive wastes improving the physical protection of nuclear materials, nuclear facilities, and nuclear material storage sites ensuring nuclear and radiation safety at shipbuilding industry enterprises during the construction, repair, and dismantlement of atomic submarines and nuclear-powered ships of the Russian Navy and nuclear-powered ships and nuclear maintenance ships of the Russian Federation Ministry of Transportation ensuring the readiness of management agencies and the forces and means of territorial and functional subsystems of the unified state system for preventing and eliminating the consequences of extreme situations so that they can accomplish objectives related to preventing and eliminating the consequences of radiation-related extreme situations within the Russian Federation improving existing technologies and developing new ones for rehabilitating territories and industrial facilities subjected to radioactive contamination improving state monitoring of the radiation situation within the Russian Federation ensuring radiation safety with regard to the operation of industrial enterprises that use materials containing natural radionuclides developing and improving the system of medical-sanitary services and labor protection for workers at hazardous nuclear and radiation facilities and for risk groups in the population subjected to increased levels of radiation effects managing informational-analytical databases with regard to protecting the health of the population and atomic energy industry workers against the effects of various sources of ionizing radiation developing methods and means for the long-term prediction of the safe operation of atomic energy facilities with regard to their safety to humanity and the environment developing and implementing federal norms and rules on atomic energy use to establish requirements for nuclear and radiation safety (technical and sanitary-hygienic aspects), physical protection, and accounting and control of nuclear materials, radioactive substances, and radioactive wastes These objectives will be accomplished on the basis of the Federal Law on the Use of Atomic Energy, the Federal Law on Radiation Safety for the Population, and other regulatory and legal acts. The following fundamental principles for ensuring radiation safety will also be taken into account:

OCR for page 87
Strengthening Long-Term Nuclear Security: Protecting Weapon-Usable Material in Russia not exceeding allowable limits for individual radiation doses received by citizens from all sources of ionizing radiation (the normative principle) prohibiting all types of activities involving the use of ionizing radiation sources in which the benefit to humanity and society does not exceed the risk of potential harm caused by additional radiation beyond the natural background level (the reasonability principle) keeping individual radiation doses and the number of persons irradiated through the use of any ionizing radiation source to the lowest achievable level, taking economic and social factors into account (the optimization principle) TERMS AND BASIC STAGES OF PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION The program is scheduled to last 7 years and is to be carried out in three stages. During Stage I (2000-2001), plans call for determining the most effective means and measures for overcoming the negative consequences of the use of atomic energy and technogenic and natural sources of ionizing radiation. Scientific, regulatory, methodological, and organizational foundations for the further implementation of Program measures are to be developed. Capabilities are to be clarified and a mechanism worked out for attracting and utilizing federal budget funds, funds from the budgets of Russian Federation subjects, and non-budgetary sources for implementation of the Program. During Stage II (2002-2003), coordinated interrelated efforts are to be made to carry out Program measures in all subprograms. During Stage III (2004-2006), plans call for implementing the fundamental provisions of the Program and defining future measures to be taken in this area on the basis of the long-term strategy developed within the Program framework for ensuring nuclear and radiation safety for humanity and the environment. The operation of the Program may be extended for a longer term according to established procedures. SYSTEM OF PROGRAMMATIC MEASURES In order to implement the Program, a range of interconnected and coordinated measures are to be planned in 20 subprograms, which are structurally organized in five categories. The following basic measures are planned under Category 1, Nuclear and Radiation Hazard Facilities: improving technologies for managing radioactive wastes and spent nuclear materials

OCR for page 87
Strengthening Long-Term Nuclear Security: Protecting Weapon-Usable Material in Russia creating storage sites and repositories for radioactive wastes and spent nuclear fuel taking measures to ensure environmental safety in regions where under-ground nuclear explosions were detonated for civilian purposes improving technologies for managing radioactive wastes formed during the operation and dismantlement of nuclear-powered ships of the Russian Federation Ministry of Transportation developing and implementing promising nuclear-, radiation-, explosive-, and fire-safe technologies, as well as safer equipment improving the quality of technical service and repair of systems and equipment at nuclear power plants creating a system for preventing and eliminating the consequences of extreme situations at nuclear power plants and other nuclear and radiation hazard facilities, including crisis centers and research and consultative centers developing the material-technical and organizational base for emergency rescue units of the Russian Federation Ministry of Atomic Energy in the aim of ensuring their readiness to carry out emergency rescue efforts carrying out scientific research and experimental design work to improve the nuclear and radiation safety of the atomic industry fuel cycle by using fast neutron reactors developing and implementing training and methodological aids and modern technical means of instruction, including full-scale training simulators, at educational and training points and centers at nuclear power plants and nuclear fuel cycle enterprises improving the accounting and control of nuclear materials, radioactive substances, and radioactive wastes as well as the physical protection of facilities that use atomic energy developing transportation engineering plans for managing spent nuclear fuel, radioactive wastes and reactor blocks at shipbuilding industry enterprises The following basic measures are called for under Category II, Protection of the Population, Rehabilitation of Contaminated Territories, and Monitoring of the Radiation Situation: developing modern means for the individual and collective protection of the population and personnel serving in units taking part in the elimination of the consequences of extreme situations improving the automated information and management system for prevention and action in extreme situations related to radiation accidents developing the necessary regulatory and methodological base in accordance with Russian Federation legislation regarding protection of the population and territories from extreme radiation situations due to natural and technogenic causes

OCR for page 87
Strengthening Long-Term Nuclear Security: Protecting Weapon-Usable Material in Russia providing technical and organizational support for the unified state automated system for monitoring of the radiation situation within the territory of the Russian Federation (EGASKRO) conducting environmental hygiene studies of territories, facilities, and risk groups in the population that have been subjected to increased levels of exposure to natural radionuclides carrying out rehabilitation measures in areas and facilities where high levels of radon and other natural radionuclides have been detected The following basic measures are planned under Category III, Protection of the Health of the Population and Professional Personnel from Various Types of Radiation Effects: developing and operating a unified state system for control and accounting of individual doses of radiation received by citizens carrying out scientific research and experimental design work to study working conditions and the health status of personnel at hazardous nuclear and radiation facilities; developing means and methods of prophylaxis, diagnosis, and treatment of work-related illnesses improving the system and means of individual protection of personnel at nuclear and radiation hazard facilities improving the system of medical-sanitary care for the population, including radiation monitoring of raw and processed food products ensuring that specialized radiation hygiene units at the federal, regional, and agency levels are constantly ready for action under emergency conditions The following basic measures are planned under Category IV, Scientific Methodological Support for Nuclear and Radiation Security Activities: developing modern methods and means of studying and analyzing the behavior of radioactive substances in natural environments (hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere) and evaluating the status of radiation-contaminated ecosystems developing scientific methodology and software for reliably analyzing the safety of hazardous nuclear and radiation facilities developing scientific analytical foundations and risk evaluation methods for application to problems of ensuring radiation safety for humanity and the environment carrying out conceptual studies to provide the scientific basis for new designs of nuclear power reactors and other hazardous nuclear and radiation facilities that will have the maximum possible level of self-protection, with these efforts to include development of principles for creating new technologies for reprocessing spent nuclear materials in order to reduce environmental risk

OCR for page 87
Strengthening Long-Term Nuclear Security: Protecting Weapon-Usable Material in Russia developing a long-term strategy, principles, and criteria for ensuring the nuclear and radiation safety of Russia, taking into account the introduction of modern technologies related to the use of atomic energy The following basic measures are planned under Category V, State Regulation of Nuclear and Radiation Safety with Regard to the Use of Atomic Energy: developing criteria, principles, and basic requirements for ensuring the nuclear and radiation safety of existing and planned atomic power stations developing federal norms and rules regarding the nuclear and radiation safety of enterprises and plants involved in the nuclear fuel cycle developing sanitary norms and rules regarding radiation safety for personnel at nuclear and radiation hazard facilities developing sanitary norms and rules regarding radiation safety for the population EXPECTED RESULTS OF PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION The following results will be achieved through implementation of measures called for in the Program: development and use of modern technologies for safe operations in the management of radioactive wastes and spent nuclear materials and the reprocessing and reliable isolation of radioactive wastes and spent nuclear materials development and implementation at nuclear fuel cycle enterprises of nuclear-, radiation-, explosive-, and fire-safe technologies as well as safer equipment improvement of the system for operational diagnosis of the condition of units and equipment at nuclear power plants and research reactors and improvement of the technical quality of their maintenance development of designs for various types of promising nuclear reactors for various purposes with an increased level of nuclear and radiation safety and improved technical and economic characteristics training of operating personnel at facilities that use atomic energy through the use of modern technical means created specially for this purpose and on the basis of training and methodological innovations including elements of psychological training of personnel for operations under extreme conditions creation and operation of the system of state accounting and control of nuclear materials and the system of state accounting and control of radioactive substances and radioactive wastes prevention of nuclear terrorism and the reduction of the likelihood of losses, thefts, and unauthorized use of nuclear materials

OCR for page 87
Strengthening Long-Term Nuclear Security: Protecting Weapon-Usable Material in Russia development of planning and design documentation and technological blueprints for ensuring nuclear and radiation safety during the dismantlement of the reactor blocks from atomic submarines and ships and during the handling of nuclear fuel and radioactive wastes at shipbuilding industry enterprises reduction of the risk of exceeding allowable limits on radiation doses to the population, minimization of the number of exposed individuals and radiation doses in the event of radiation accidents, and reduction of the consequences of such accidents for territories and industrial facilities return to productive use of industrial facilities, agricultural lands, and other territories subjected to radioactive contamination as a result of defense program operations or radiation-related extreme situations development and operation of a modern unified automated state system for monitoring the radiation situation within the territory of the Russian Federation reduction of the human irradiation level from natural radionuclides at home and on the job and reduction of technogenic contamination of the environment by such materials development of modern methods and equipment for conducting medical investigations and prophylaxis and treatment of workers at nuclear and radiation hazard facilities and of risk groups in the population who have been subjected to increased levels of radiation effects creation and operation of a unified state system for control and accounting of individual radiation doses received by citizens; establishment of a state radiation epidemiological registry of persons who have suffered from radiation effects and have been subjected to radiation exposure as a result of Chernobyl and other radiation catastrophes and incidents; operation of a unified medical-dosimetric registry for atomic industry workers; and preparation of radiation-hygiene data sheets on organizations and territories development of a scientifically grounded long-term strategy for ensuring nuclear and radiation safety for humanity and the environment while using atomic energy in various sectors of the economy, medicine, and scientific research improvement of the regulatory and legal base with regard to defining requirements for the safe and secure use of atomic energy in various sectors of the economy, medicine, and scientific research RESOURCE SUPPORT FOR PROGRAM The Program is to be financed from the following sources: federal budget funds funds from the budgets of Russian Federation subjects

OCR for page 87
Strengthening Long-Term Nuclear Security: Protecting Weapon-Usable Material in Russia non-budgetary sources, including funds from enterprises and organizations that operate facilities using atomic energy In 2000, Program activities are to be financed with funds stipulated in the Federal Law on the Federal Budget for 2000 to be used for implementing federal targeted programs that are part of the Program. Over the course of Program implementation, specific measures and the amounts and sources of their financing are subject to annual revision based on an analysis of results achieved and with consideration for the real economic possibilities of the federal budget. The volume of financing for the Program, without taking into account the funds from budgets of Russian Federation subjects, is 7,616,330,000 rubles, of which 6,066,330,000 rubles come from the federal budget and 1,550,000,000 rubles from non-budgetary sources (to be spent on various Program measures to the extent they are received). Program measures and their financing using federal budget funds are listed in Appendix 1.3 A total of 1,090,830,000 rubles is required for implementation of Program measures in Stage I (2000-2001), 1,676,780,000 rubles for Stage II (2002-2003), and 3,298,720,000 for Stage III (2004-2006). The distribution of federal budget funds for scientific research, experimental design work, investments, and other expenses is presented in Appendix 2, delineated by subprograms. A total of 2,075,550,000 rubles is allocated for scientific research and experimental design work, 3,410,700,000 rubles for investments, and 580,080,000 for other expenses. Participation in Program implementation and financing of measures to increase the safety and security of hazardous nuclear and radiation facilities from the budget funds of Russian Federation subjects is determined by agreements between the state contractors of the Program and the corresponding Russian Federation subjects. MECHANISM FOR PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION The state contractors for the Program are the Russian Federation Ministry of Atomic Energy (Program coordinator); the Russian Federation Ministry on Civil Defense, Extreme Situations, and Elimination of the Consequences of Natural Disasters; the Russian Federation Ministry of Health; the Russian Federation Ministry of Science and Technology; the Russian Federation Ministry of Economics; Russian Federation State Committee on Environmental Protection; Russian Shipbuilding Agency; and the Russian Federal Inspectorate for Nuclear and Radiation Safety. 3   Appendixes have not been included here.

OCR for page 87
Strengthening Long-Term Nuclear Security: Protecting Weapon-Usable Material in Russia The state contractor-coordinator organizes the work of the state contractors on the Program. Taking into account the financial resources allocated for Program implementation from various sources and the preliminary results achieved in the course of implementation, the state contractor-coordinator of the Program clarifies Program measures, their implementation timelines, and their funding volumes. Program activities supported by federal budget resources are financed by targeted allocations through state contractors or primary executors of programmatic measures in accordance with Appendix 1 and according to the expense categories shown in Appendix 2. Organizations and enterprises carry out Program measures on the basis of state contracts. In the event that several enterprises (organizations) have the right based on Russian Federation legislation to participate in the implementation of programmatic measures, specific executors are determined on a competitive basis in accordance with the Federal Law on Competitions for the Awarding of Contracts for the Supply of Goods, Completion of Work, and Provision of Services to Meet State Needs. Preliminary work within the Program framework to address various aspects singled out during the Program implementation process with regard to ensuring nuclear and radiation safety and security in various economic sectors and regions of the Russian Federation is to be carried out in accordance with the decision of the Program directorate. ORGANIZATION OF PROGRAM MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING OF PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION Organization of Program management and monitoring of the course of its implementation are the responsibilities of the Russian Federation Ministry of Atomic Energy. The state contractor-coordinator and state contractors of the Program perform their functions in coordination with interested federal executive branch agencies, executive branch agencies of Russian Federation subjects, and local government entities. A directorate headed by the first deputy minister of the Russian Federation Ministry for Atomic Energy is being created to handle day-to-day management. The directorate also includes representatives of all the state contractors. Representatives of other interested federal executive branch agencies may also participate in the work of the directorate. The membership and status of the directorate are approved by the state contractor-coordinator of the Program. The budgetary request for allocations from the federal budget for Program financing is developed and presented according to established procedures by the state contractor-coordinator of the Program.

OCR for page 87
Strengthening Long-Term Nuclear Security: Protecting Weapon-Usable Material in Russia In the aim of organizing the expert review of materials received from competition participants wishing to participate in the implementation of programmatic measures, assessments of interim results of Program implementation, evaluation of the reasonableness of requests for funding and material-technical support for projects, and consideration of other scientific-technical questions, the Russian Federation Ministry of Atomic Energy is organizing an interagency council of scientists and specialists from interested federal executive branch agencies, executive branch agencies of Russian Federation subjects, and organizations involved in ensuring nuclear and radiation safety. The composition and status of the interagency council are approved by the Russian Federation Ministry of Atomic Energy. In cooperation with the state contractors of the Program, the state contractor-coordinator follows established procedures for presenting the necessary information about the course of Program efforts and the effectiveness of the use of financial resources. Expert reviews of the course of Program implementation are carried out by the Russian Federation Ministry of Economics in cooperation with the Russian Federation Ministry of Finances, the Russian Federation Ministry of Science and Technology, and the Russian Federation Ministry of Atomic Energy. SOCIOECONOMIC EFFECTIVENESS OF THE PROGRAM The overall socioeconomic effect of Program implementation is achieved through improvement of the radiation ecology situation in areas where atomic energy facilities operate and in rehabilitated territories reduction in direct and indirect economic losses as a result of the elimination of the likelihood that serious radiation accidents will occur prevention or reduction of the possible damage from increased radiation effects on humanity and the environment as a result of a worsened radiation situation by means of taking operational actions to localize and eliminate its consequences effective operation of the medical-sanitary system for protecting the health of individuals employed at nuclear and radiation hazard facilities and of the population living in adjacent territories

OCR for page 87
Strengthening Long-Term Nuclear Security: Protecting Weapon-Usable Material in Russia This page intentionally left blank.