Appendixes



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Autonomous Vehicles in Support of Naval Operations Appendixes

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Autonomous Vehicles in Support of Naval Operations A Biographies of Committee Members and Staff John J. Deyst (Chair) is professor of aeronautics and astronautics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). During his 35 years at the Charles S. Draper Laboratory and MIT, Dr. Deyst’s research efforts have focused in the areas of estimation theory, control theory and methods, fault-tolerant systems, guidance technologies, sensors for aerospace vehicles, and lean aerospace development and production. His recent interests include autonomous and information systems for aerospace vehicles—in particular, those systems with application to unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)—and center on the development, verification, and validation of avionics hardware and software. Dr. Deyst is a fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees. He received his S.B., S.M., and Sc.D. degrees from MIT. Currently he leads the development team for the MIT/Draper Laboratory Parent-Child UAV program. Neil Adams is the director of industrial research and development at the Charles S. Draper Laboratory, where he is responsible for managing a variety of the laboratory’s technology investment and development programs. Mr. Adams recently served as principal systems engineer in the Systems Engineering and Evaluation Directorate and as technical director for autonomous systems at the Draper Laboratory. In these latter capacities, he was responsible for coordinating the internal research and development efforts relating to the development of advanced intelligent autonomy technology. Mr. Adams previously served as the Draper Laboratory’s technical director for the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Uninhabited Combat Air Vehicles Demonstration Program, the Defense Ad-

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Autonomous Vehicles in Support of Naval Operations vanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Small Aerial Reconnaissance Vehicle Program, the DARPA Micro Air Vehicle Program, and the ONR Intelligent Autonomy Program. W.R. (Will) Bolton is technical director for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement-Unmanned Aerospace Vehicles Program, a U.S. Department of Energy collaboration involving industrial, academic, and national laboratory participation; and manager of the Exploratory Systems Technology Department at Sandia National Laboratories. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement-Unmanned Aerospace Vehicles Program was established to investigate the interaction of clouds and solar energy in the atmosphere and to demonstrate the utility of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for atmospheric research. Dr. Bolton has an extensive background in aerodynamics, particularly in regard to UAV stability and control. Prior to joining Sandia, he was an engineer at the Boeing Military Airplane Division. His professional experience, in both technical areas and program management, has included responsibilities for a number of advanced development and exploratory projects in areas ranging from parachute aerodynamics to the high-speed penetration of water, ice, and Earth by suborbital missile payloads. Roy R. Buehler, an independent consultant, retired from Lockheed Martin Aeronautical Systems, where he managed Lockheed’s U.S. Customs Service Line of Business. Mr. Buehler’s background is in antiair and antisurface warfare and airborne early-warning systems. He has more than 30 years of experience in industry and government as an experimental test pilot, business planner, and program manager in the start-up of new aircraft programs, such as those for the F-111, F-14, F-18, A-6, and F-22/Naval Advanced Tactical Fighter. He served in the Navy as a carrier fighter pilot and also as an experimental test pilot and major program manager. Mr. Buehler is a member of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots. Armand J. Chaput is a senior technical fellow at Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company in Fort Worth, Texas, where he provides technical support to a range of advanced aerospace projects. Dr. Chaput also teaches unmanned aerial vehicle design at the Sejong University-Lockheed Martin Aerospace Research Center in Seoul, Korea. His previous assignments at Lockheed and predecessor companies include those as Uninhabited Combat Air Vehicles Integrated Product Team lead; chief engineer for the Lockheed/McDonnell Douglas/Northrop AFX (modernization program for attack fighter aircraft, since cancelled) team; chief engineer for the National Aero-Space Plane; and manager of the General Dynamics Advanced Design Organization. Prior to joining Lockheed, he was at the Central Intelligence Agency where he had both operational and technical assignments and was

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Autonomous Vehicles in Support of Naval Operations on active duty as an Army Ordnance Corps officer. Dr. Chaput has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Aircraft Design Technical Committee and the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board. He received B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in aerospace engineering from Texas A&M University. John C. Fielding retired in July 2003 as vice president of Raytheon Electronic Systems, where he had directed the Advanced Systems Group, a staff function in the Electronic Systems Headquarters. Prior to joining Raytheon, Mr. Fielding was an associate division head and member of the steering committee at the MIT Lincoln Laboratory, where he worked on space-based defense and National Aeronautics and Space Administration programs, as well as on studies involving cruise missile defense, counterstealth, relocatable strategic targets, and air traffic control. For a period in the 1970s he left MIT and joined the General Research Corporation, where he led a technical support effort to the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency in the negotiation of the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty. Mr. Fielding has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including participation in studies for the Defense Science Board and the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Committee on Alternative Futures for the Army Research Laboratory. James R. Fitzgerald, Vice Admiral, USN (Ret.), retired from the U.S. Navy after 35 years of service, principally within the surface force. During his career, Admiral Fitzgerald served in a number of senior leadership capacities including the following: director of the Antisubmarine Warfare Division, Chief of Naval Operations’ staff; current operations officer for the Joint Chiefs of Staff; commander of the USS Carl Vinson Battle Group; and deputy commander in chief of the U.S. Pacific Fleet. His last assignment prior to retirement was as inspector general for the Department of the Navy. Currently, Admiral Fitzgerald is a member of the senior technical staff at the Applied Physics Laboratory of the Johns Hopkins University, where his interests center on undersea warfare. Admiral Fitzgerald has a B.S. in business administration from the University of Florida and an M.S. in engineering acoustics from the Naval Postgraduate School, and is a graduate of the National War College. Charles A. (Bert) Fowler, an independent consultant, is retired senior vice president at the MITRE Corporation, a federally funded research and development center serving the government on issues relating to national security. Mr. Fowler, a member of the National Academy of Engineering, has an extensive background in military systems utilizing radar, sensor, and countermeasure technologies. Mr. Fowler began his career as a staff member of the Radiation Laboratory at MIT, where he participated in the development and testing of the ground control ap-

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Autonomous Vehicles in Support of Naval Operations proach radar landing system. He later went on to engineering and management positions at MIT’s Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, the Department of Defense, and Raytheon Systems Company before joining MITRE in 1976. Mr. Fowler is a fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. He received his B.S. in engineering physics from the University of Illinois. Robert H. Gormley, Rear Admiral, USN (Ret.), is president of the Oceanus Company, a technology advisory and business development firm serving clients in fields of aerospace, defense, and electronics. Admiral Gormley is also senior vice president of Projects International, Inc., a Washington-based company that assists U.S. and foreign clients in developing trade and investment opportunities. Earlier, as a career officer and naval aviator, he commanded the aircraft carrier USS John F. Kennedy, a combat stores ship, an air wing, and a fighter squadron during the Vietnam War. Additionally, he served in the Navy’s Operational Test and Evaluation Force, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Systems Analysis); and as chief of studies, analysis, and wargaming for the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Admiral Gormley has an extensive background in aviation technologies, with emphasis on unmanned aerial vehicles, airborne reconnaissance systems, aircraft survivability, and vertical/short takeoff and landing aircraft. He regularly participates in national security studies undertaken by the NRC and has been a member of study panels of the Defense Science Board and the Naval Research Advisory Committee. Admiral Gormley studied at the U.S. Naval Academy and Harvard University and was awarded degrees by both institutions. Michael R. Hilliard is on the research staff of the National Transportation Research Center at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). During Dr. Hilliard’s tenure at ORNL, his research interests have focused on the implementation of development models for complex systems, the design of optimization and artificial-intelligence-based algorithms, and the implementation of decision-support systems for public agencies. Dr. Hilliard led a major effort at ORNL to provide the U.S. Air Force Air Mobility Command with state-of-the-art planning and scheduling tools. Recently, he worked with a team of researchers from the University of Tennessee to analyze the supply-chain practices of the Defense Logistics Agency. Currently, he is working with the Army Corps of Engineers developing automated tools to analyze the flow of traffic on the inland waterway system. Dr. Hilliard earned a Ph.D. in operations research and industrial engineering from Cornell University. Frank A. Horrigan retired from the technical development staff for sensors and electronic systems at Raytheon Systems Company. He has broad general knowl-

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Autonomous Vehicles in Support of Naval Operations edge of all technologies relevant to military systems. A theoretical physicist, Dr. Horrigan has more than 35 years of experience in advanced electronics, electrooptics, radar and sensor technologies, and advanced information systems. In addition, he has extensive experience in planning and managing industrial research and development investments and in projecting directions of future technology growth. Dr. Horrigan once served as a NATO Fellow at the Saclay nuclear research center in France. Today he serves on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees and is a member of the NRC’s Naval Studies Board. Harry W. Jenkins, Jr., Major General, USMC (Ret.), is director of business development and congressional liaison at ITT Industries, where he is responsible for activities in support of tactical communications systems and airborne electronic warfare between the Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, National Guard, and appropriate committees in Congress. General Jenkins’s operational background is in expeditionary warfare, particularly in regard to its mission use of command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I) systems. During Desert Storm, General Jenkins served as the commanding general of the Fourth Marine Expeditionary Brigade, where he directed operational planning, training, and employment of the ground units, aviation assets, and command-and-control systems in the 17,000-person amphibious force. General Jenkins’s last position before retirement from the U.S. Marine Corps was as director of expeditionary warfare for the Chief of Naval Operations, where he initiated a detailed program for C4I systems improvements for large-deck amphibious ships, as well as managing all programs of naval mine warfare and reorganizing the Navy’s unmanned aerial vehicle efforts for operations from aircraft carriers and amphibious ships. He is a member of numerous professional societies, including the Marine Corps Association, Marine Corps Aviation Association, Expeditionary Warfare Division of the Naval Defense Industry Association, Navy League, and Adjutant Generals Association of the United States. General Jenkins is a member of the NRC’s Naval Studies Board. David V. Kalbaugh is assistant director for programs at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL), where he is responsible for the oversight and coordination of all laboratory technical programs. Prior to his current assignment, Dr. Kalbaugh was head of the Power Projection Systems Department, where he was responsible for programs in strike warfare, defense communications, and information operations. His background is in tactical missile and precision strike systems. He joined JHU/APL in 1969 and was involved in the development of the Tomahawk cruise missile system at its inception. In addition to his supervisory and management duties, Dr. Kalbaugh has taught for more than a decade in JHU’s Whiting School of Engineering. He has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including participation in

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Autonomous Vehicles in Support of Naval Operations tasks for the Undersecretary of Defense for Acquisition and for the program executive officer for Theater Air Defense. Dr. Kalbaugh is a member of the NRC’s Naval Studies Board. Carl E. Landwehr is program director of the newly established Trusted Computing Program at the National Science Foundation, where his research interests include information security and dependable systems. He is currently on assignment from the University of Maryland’s Institute for Systems Research. Prior to this assignment he was a senior fellow in the Center for Information Technology and Telecommunications at Mitretek. Before joining Mitretek, Dr. Landwehr headed the Computer Security Section of the Center for High Assurance Computer Systems at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), where he led a variety of research projects to advance technologies of computer security and high-assurance systems. He has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including editorial boards for the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers’ (IEEE’s) Transactions on Software Engineering and for the Journal of Computer Security and the High Integrity Systems Journal. He received a B.S. degree in engineering and applied science from Yale University and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in computer and communication sciences from the University of Michigan. James R. Luyten is the executive vice president and director of research at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. During his 31 years at Woods Hole, Dr. Luyten’s research interests have included the structure and dynamics of the general North Atlantic circulation and observations and instrumentation designed to understand the underlying processes of ocean currents, particularly long-period equatorial variability and its relation to the mean circulation. Many of these studies have involved the use of semiautonomous and fully autonomous undersea vehicles as principal observation platforms. Dr. Luyten has participated in 7 major field programs and 18 oceanographic cruises, serving as chief scientist on 10 occasions. He has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including as chair of a Naval Research Advisory Committee examining the role of unmanned vehicles in mine countermeasures. Dr. Luyten completed his A.B. degree at Reed College and his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees at Harvard University. Carl Mikeman is the advanced systems program manager and electro-optical sensor specialist at the Northrop Grumman Ryan Aeronautical Center. Mr. Mikeman has more than 30 years’ experience in the technical and management aspects of system design and development related to electro-optical imaging systems, sensors, and seekers, with emphasis on UAVs and other airborne platforms, including field and flight testing and evaluation. He is currently responsible for evaluating sensor and seeker payloads and integrating them into

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Autonomous Vehicles in Support of Naval Operations unpiloted aircraft. Mr. Mikeman also has primary responsibility at the Ryan Aeronautical Center for the development of UAVs for Ryan’s DARPA/U.S. Army Future Combat Systems Program, and he is program manager for the development of Northrop Grumman’s UAV control console. John B. (Brad) Mooney, Jr., Rear Admiral, USN (Ret.), retired from the U.S. Navy in 1987 after more than 34 years of professional, commissioned officer experience, including a total of six commands both at sea and ashore and various, diverse staff assignments in the fields of management, research, education, training, manpower planning, and very deep ocean operations. During his Navy career, Admiral Mooney’s last active-duty positions were as oceanographer for the Navy and Navy deputy of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration from 1981 to 1983 and as Chief of Naval Research from 1983 to 1987. In addition, he had directed all Navy training and education activities and manpower requirements planning for the Chief of Naval Operations from 1978 to 1981. After retiring from the Navy, Admiral Mooney consulted and was president of the Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution from 1989 to 1992. Today he is an independent consultant to ocean engineering and research managers. A member of the National Academy of Engineering, Admiral Mooney has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees. He is past chair of the NRC’s Marine Board and the NRC Committee on Undersea Vehicles. He received a B.S. from the U.S. Naval Academy. Stewart D. Personick is an independent consultant, having recently retired as the E. Warren Colehower Chair Professor of Telecommunications and director of the Center for Telecommunications and Information Networking at Drexel University. Dr. Personick, a member of the National Academy of Engineering, has an extensive background in telecommunications, networking, and networking/network-based applications security and in optical communications technology and applications. As the first director of Drexel’s Center for Telecommunications and Information Networking, he created four initial programs: Networks That Work, Trustworthy Networks, Next Generation Wireless, and Optical Networking. Dr. Personick is retired from Bell Communications Research, Inc. (Bellcore), where he served as vice president of information networking research. He is a current member of the NRC Board on Army Science and Technology and a member of the board of directors of Optical Communications Products, Inc. Nils R. Sandell, Jr., is vice president and general manager of BAE Systems Advanced Information Technologies. Dr. Sandell has an extensive background in military command, control, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance systems and technologies. His areas of expertise include automatic target recognition, sensor fusion, sensor resource management, and battle management/com-

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Autonomous Vehicles in Support of Naval Operations mand, control, and communications. He is a former associate professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he lectured in the areas of estimation and control theory, stochastic processes, and computer systems. Dr. Sandell has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, such as the 2001 Defense Science Board study on precision weapons targeting. Dr. Sandell is a member of the Naval Studies Board. Howard E. Shrobe is principal research scientist at MIT’s Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, where his research interests are in intelligent systems, knowledge-based software development, evolutionary design of complex software, and information survivability. From 1994 to 1997, Dr. Shrobe served as assistant director and chief scientist for DARPA’s Information Technology Office, where he was responsible for the two programs Evolutionary Design of Complex Software and Information Survivability. Dr. Shrobe has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including the NRC Committee for the Review of ONR’s Technical Visions for UCAVs. James M. Sinnett, an independent consultant, recently retired as vice president of technology at the Boeing Company, where he served as Boeing’s senior spokesman on technology matters. Prior to that position, he served as the corporate vice president of technology for McDonnell Douglas. He joined McDonnell as a test engineer and was involved with the development of the propulsion systems for Projects Mercury and Gemini. He has since worked on a number of advanced concept development programs for hypersonic aircraft, advanced subsonic fighters/interceptors, control configured vehicles, and high-acceleration cockpits. Mr. Sinnett serves on a number of scientific boards and advisory committees and is a member of the NRC’s Naval Studies Board. Marilyn J. Smith is associate professor of aerospace engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Dr. Smith has extensive experience with fixed- and rotary-wing aeroelastic problems. Her research interests include unsteady computational aerodynamics, computational aeroelasticity, and the integrated multidisciplinary areas of design of aeroelastic configurations and acoustic/fluid/ structure interactions. She is a member of the American Helicopter Society (AHS) and has served on the National Technical Committee on Fluid Dynamics/Aerodynamics for both the AHS and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Charles E. Thorpe is director of the Carnegie Mellon University’s Robotic Institute in the School of Computer Science and a founder of the institute’s master’s degree program. Since 1984, he has worked on the development of outdoor robotic vehicles, focusing on computer vision, planning, and architectures for

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Autonomous Vehicles in Support of Naval Operations these machines. Dr. Thorpe and his naval laboratories research group have built a series of 11 robotic cars, trucks, and buses for military and civilian research. He and his team have pioneered new methods in stereo vision, laser rangefinding, three-dimensional terrain modeling, neural networks for perception, route planning, driver-performance modeling, traffic simulation, teleoperation, vehicle control on rough terrain, and system architectures. Dr. Thorpe has also been involved in the development of automated helicopters, walking robots, and robots that operate under water. He received his doctoral degree in computer science from Carnegie Mellon University in 1984 and his undergraduate degree in natural science from North Park College in Chicago in 1979. He is a fellow of the American Association for Artificial Intelligence. David Whelan is vice president-general manager and deputy to the president of Boeing Phantom Works, Boeing’s central research and development organization. Prior to joining Boeing in 2001, Dr. Whelan was director of the Tactical Technology Office at DARPA, where he led the development of enabling technologies, such as unmanned vehicles and space-based moving target indicator radar systems. Prior to his position with DARPA, Dr. Whelan held several positions of increasing responsibility with Hughes Aircraft. His experience in high-technology development also includes roles as a research physicist for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and as one of four lead engineers assigned for the design and development of the B-2 Stealth Bomber Program at Northrop Grumman. Dr. Whelan earned his Ph.D. and M.A. degrees in physics from the University of California at Los Angeles and his bachelor’s degree in physics from the University of California at San Diego. Brian H. Wilcox is the supervisor of the Robotic Vehicles Group at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (NASA JPL). In the summer of 1997, the Robotic Vehicles Group was responsible for the control and navigation of the Sojourner Rover, which explored part of Mars. His group at NASA JPL was responsible for similar activities for the Mars Exploration Rover exploring Mars in 2004 and 2005. Mr. Wilcox’s research interests include electronics and navigation sensors; control software, including hazard detection and avoidance; and mission operations. Mr. Wilcox was personally responsible for conceiving and developing the stereo camera and laser ranging system used on the Sojourner rover. He received the NASA Exceptional Engineering Achievement Medal in 1992 and the JPL Award for Excellence in 1999 and 2001. He holds six U.S. patents in the area of robotics. Mr. Wilcox received an M.S. in electrical engineering from the University of Southern California and a B.S. in physics and a B.A. in mathematics from the University of California at Santa Barbara.

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Autonomous Vehicles in Support of Naval Operations Staff Charles F. Draper is acting director at the National Research Council’s Naval Studies Board. He joined the National Research Council in 1997 as program officer, then senior program officer, with the Naval Studies Board and in 2003 became associate director. During his tenure with the Naval Studies Board, Dr. Draper has served as the responsible staff officer on a wide range of topics aimed at helping the Department of the Navy with its scientific, technical, and strategic planning. His recent efforts include topics on network-centric operations, theater missile defense, mine warfare, and nonlethal weapons. Prior to joining the Naval Studies Board, he was the lead mechanical engineer at Sensytech, Inc. (formerly S.T. Research Corporation), where he provided technical and program management support for satellite Earth station and small-satellite design. He received his Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from Vanderbilt University in 1995; his doctoral research was conducted at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), where he used an atomic force microscope to measure the nanomechanical properties of thin-film materials. In parallel with his graduate student duties, Dr. Draper was a mechanical engineer with Geo-Centers, Inc., working on-site at NRL on the development of an underwater x-ray backscattering tomography system used for the nondestructive evaluation of U.S. Navy sonar domes on surface ships. Arul Mozhi is senior program officer at the National Research Council’s Naval Studies Board and served as senior program officer at the NRC’s Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design and National Materials Advisory Board. Prior to joining the NRC in 1999, Dr. Mozhi was senior scientist and program manager at UTRON, Inc., a high-tech company in the Washington, D.C., area, working on pulsed electrical and chemical energy technologies applied to materials processing. From 1989 to 1996, Dr. Mozhi was a senior engineer and task leader at Roy F. Weston, Inc., a leading environmental consulting company working on long-term nuclear materials behavior and systems engineering related to nuclear waste transport, storage, and disposal in support of the U.S. Department of Energy. Before 1989 he was a materials scientist at Marko Materials, Inc., a high-tech firm in the Boston area, working on rapidly solidified materials. He received his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees (the latter in 1986) in materials engineering from the Ohio State University and then served as a postdoctoral research associate there. He received his B.S. in metallurgical engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology in 1982.