sensor data, diagnose problems, and collaborate with other systems. Most conventional autonomous vehicles and their controlling elements form an autonomous system that fall into this category.

Intelligent autonomous systems use intelligent autonomy technology to embed attributes of human intelligence in the software of autonomous vehicles and their controlling elements. This intelligent autonomy software does the following: (1) it makes decisions, given a set of (generally automated) planned options; (2) it perceives and interprets the meaning of sensed information; (3) it diagnoses vehicle, system, or mission-level problems detected through monitoring; and (4) it collaborates with other systems using communications networks and protocols.

This major section discusses technologies relating to supervised and intelligent autonomous systems. The systems and technology associated with such systems generally reside in the Mission Management System or Command and Control System elements of an the autonomous system (see Figure 3.1), while the actions that implement higher-level decisions are done today (generally autonomously) by the Vehicle Management System (VMS) (e.g., by autopilots). Following is a descriptive list of the various systems that comprise the elements of an AV system.

FIGURE 3.1 The elements of an autonomous vehicle system. NOTE: C2, command and control; C4ISR, command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance; MCG&I, mapping, charting, geodesy, and imagery; ECM, electronic countermeasures; FLT CNTL, flight control; SA, situation awareness.

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