IVa

IVb

IVc

V

 

 

 

Earth return

Mars

Mars

Mars

Mars, Europa, others TBD

 

 

 

If restricted Earth return: no impact on Earth or the Moon, returned hardware sterile, containment of any sample

 

 

 

Outbound

Lander systems not carrying instruments for the investigations of extant martian life are restricted to a biological burden no greater than Viking lander pre-sterilization levels.

For lander systems designed to investigate extant martian life, all of the requirements of Category IVa apply, along with the following requirement:

The entire landed system must be sterilized at least to Viking post-sterilization biological burden levels, or to levels of biological burden reduction driven by the nature and sensitivity of the particular life-detection experiments, whichever are more stringent,

or

the subsystems that are involved in the acquisition, delivery, and analysis of samples used for life detection must be sterilized to these levels, and a method of preventing recontamination of the sterilized subsystems and the contamination of the material to be analyzed is in place.

For missions that investigate martian special regions,a even if they do not include life-detection experiments, all of the requirements of Category IVa apply, along with the following requirement:

Case 1:

If the landing site is within the special region, the entire landed system shall be sterilized at least to the Viking post-sterilization biological burden levels.

Case 2:

If the special region is accessed through horizontal or vertical mobility, either the entire landed system shall be sterilized to the Viking post-sterilization biological burden levels,

or

the subsystems that directly contact the special region shall be sterilized to these levels, and a method of preventing their recontamination before accessing the special region shall be provided.

Same category as target body/outbound mission

Inbound

If restricted Earth return:

Documentation (Category II) plus P c analysis plan, microbial reduction plan, microbial assay plan, trajectory biasing, sterile or contained returned hardware, continual monitoring of project activities, project advanced studies/research

If unrestricted Earth return: none

b Defined as 20 years after launch at greater than or equal to 99 percent probability, and 50 years after launch at greater than or equal to 95 percent probability.

SOURCE: Reprinted from COSPAR (2003), copyright 2003, with permission from Elsevier.



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