Methods have been developed for assessing the intensity of local and systemic immunity to Corynebacteria diphtheriae. Based on diphtheria infection models, a set of immunity status analysis methods has been developed for the first time, making it possible to evaluate the intensity of antibacterial and anti-toxic immunity (I. N. Blokhina Scientific-Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Nizhny Novgorod).
Researchers have discovered certain features of the genetic characteristics of HIV-1 strains circulating among risk groups. It was shown that one strain of HIV-1 caused more than 80 percent of all cases of HIV infection in Russia. Three recombinant varieties of HIV-1 were found in Russia—A/E, D/G, and A/G—which attests to the substantial contribution of such viruses to the epidemiological process of HIV infection in our country. Based on these research results, nucleotide sequences obtained from 250 new varieties of HIV-1 have been deposited in the International Gene Bank (GenBank). Another result of this work was the application in specific epidemiological research studies of molecular-epidemiological methods based on the genetic characterization of HIV-1 varieties (Russian Academy of Medical Sciences D. I. Ivanovsky Scientific Research Institute of Virology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences O. G. Andzhaparidze Scientific-Research Institute of Viral Preparations, and various applied research institutes focusing on problems of diagnosing and preventing HIV infections and AIDS).
The effectiveness of using the phytopreparation Erakond to provide pregnant women with non-specific protection against herpetic and respiratory viruses has been demonstrated (Scientific-Research Institute of Viral Infections, Yekaterinburg).
Various types of test systems based on hybrids producing type 1 and 2 antibodies have been designed to detect antigens to the herpes simplex virus. Genetic methods have been developed for serogrouping, typing, and clonal analysis of meningococci (Russian Academy of Medical Sciences O. G. Andzhaparidze Scientific-Research Institute of Viral Preparations, Moscow).
In conjunction with efforts to improve the epidemiological monitoring system, the following accomplishments have been made:
A system for unified epidemiological monitoring of measles and rubella has been developed, and further research has been done to document its scientific foundations (G. N. Gabrichevsky Scientific-Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow).
Two types of recombinant protein-based immunoenzyme systems have been designed to determine specific IgG and IgM antibodies to the rubella virus. A seroepidemiological study has been conducted regarding postinfection and postvaccination immunity to the rubella virus among various groups in the population (Russian Academy of Medical Sciences O. G. Andzhaparidze Scientific-Research Institute of Viral Preparations, Moscow).