In 1998, the ARS initiated a program designed to provide opportunities for scientific cooperation between ARS scientists and scientists in research institutes of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) countries. The objectives are:
to advance agricultural science by establishing new expertise in FSU countries
to enhance the effectiveness and productivity of ARS research programs
to improve the economy of FSU countries through advances in agricultural technology
to reduce the threat of biological weapon (BW) development and usage in the world
establish collaborative, mutually beneficial research projects
develop proposals jointly (principal investigators from FSU and ARS)
maintain substantial contact between ARS and FSU scientists
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Biological Science and Biotechnology in Russia: Controlling Diseases and Enhancing Security Appendix Q Bioengagement Programs Financed by the United States Government U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultral Research Service (ARS)-Former Soviet Union Scientific Cooperative Program (Funding for this program is received from the Department of State) History In 1998, the ARS initiated a program designed to provide opportunities for scientific cooperation between ARS scientists and scientists in research institutes of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) countries. The objectives are: to advance agricultural science by establishing new expertise in FSU countries to enhance the effectiveness and productivity of ARS research programs to improve the economy of FSU countries through advances in agricultural technology to reduce the threat of biological weapon (BW) development and usage in the world Program Philosophy establish collaborative, mutually beneficial research projects develop proposals jointly (principal investigators from FSU and ARS) maintain substantial contact between ARS and FSU scientists
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Biological Science and Biotechnology in Russia: Controlling Diseases and Enhancing Security Program Model The program endeavors to foster close cooperation between ARS and FSU scientists. Project ideas may come from either side, but the final project is developed jointly. For further information, please see: http://iapreview.ars.usda.gov/research/programs/docs.htm?docid=987&page=2 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Cooperative Threat Reduction: Russia Programs A. Biological Weapons Proliferation Prevention Security Enhancements Locations Current: Obolensk (SRCAM), Novosibirsk (VECTOR), Golitsino, Pokrov Project Description Enhance BioSecurity and BioSafety at Biological Research and Production Centers (BRPCs) to ensure secure and safe storage and handling of biological pathogens For further information, please see: http://www.dtra.mil B. Biological Weapons Proliferation Prevention Cooperative BioDefense Research Locations Current: Obolensk (SRCAM), Novosibirsk (VECTOR), Moscow (RCMDT), Serpukhov (RCTHRB), St. Petersburg (SRIHPB) Potential: Sergiev Posad, Lyubuchany, Saratov, Volgograd, Rostov, Stravropol, Kirov, Yekaterinburg, Irkutsk, Kazan Project Description Prevent proliferation of BW Biotechnology, increase transparency, and enhance U.S. force protection capabilities through research projects with former BW scientists at BRPCs For further information, please see: http://www.dtra.mil
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Biological Science and Biotechnology in Russia: Controlling Diseases and Enhancing Security C. Biological Weapons Proliferation Prevention Dismantlement Locations Current: Novosibirsk (VECTOR), Obolensk (SRCAM), Golitsino, Pokrov Project Description Eliminate infrastructure and equipment at BRPCs that have BW capability and/or create barriers to involvement by Western commercial, non-governmental, or government entities For further information, please see: http://www.dtra.mil U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of Global Health Affairs A. HHS Biotechnology Engagement Program (BTEP) Background For nearly 30 years, Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) scientists have been involved in cooperative biomedical research with the former Soviet Union on polio, influenza, diphtheria, radiation health effects, and more recently, tuberculosis and other dangerous pathogens such as West Nile encephalitis. At the request of the Departments of State and Defense, HHS has developed a State-Department funded Biotechnology Engagement Program (BTEP) to “engage” former Soviet weapons scientists in collaborative research on applied high-priority public health problems. The HHS BTEP supports broad U.S. policy goals of integrating Eurasian scientists into the international community; reducing the risk of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction expertise; increasing transparency at former Soviet biological weapons research sites; and redirecting bio technology expertise to peaceful research in areas of urgent public health needs. Program Description The Office of Global Health Affairs has established a partner agreement with the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) for funding and managing projects in Russia and the NIS. HHS experts have participated in workshops and site visits to develop a targeted set of projects focused around high priority public health needs in Russia and N. Eurasia and has worked with the Ministries of Health to help determine these priorities (TB, Hepatitis, HIV/AIDS, Variola, etc.). Scientists from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institutes of Health, and Food and Drug Administration have worked with Rus-
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Biological Science and Biotechnology in Russia: Controlling Diseases and Enhancing Security sian and N. Eurasian colleagues to develop proposals under HHS and ISTC guidelines. Support will be provided for workshops and training on such topics as emerging and reemerging infectious diseases and grant proposal development to help mainstream otherwise isolated scientists. For further information, please see: http://www.hhs.gov/ogha/europeaffairsdhhs.shtml U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE Office of Proliferation Threat Reduction A. BioIndustry Initiative (BII) BII was created to carry out two specific objectives: I. Reconfiguration of former Biological Weapons Production Facilities The Initiative seeks to engage and strategically transform former Soviet biological production facilities, technology and expertise for sustainable, commercial and peaceful applications. II. Accelerate Drug and Vaccine Production BII fosters partnerships between U.S. and Russian scientists for research and development to accelerate drug and vaccine production for highly infectious diseases that affect both the former Soviet Union and the world. BII now receives annual funding from the U.S. Department of State’s Office of Proliferation Threat Reduction, which supports both the Science Centers and the Bio/Chem-Redirect nonproliferation programs working in Eurasia. Strategy The Initiative selects projects based on merit. BII then invests significant effort into matching the best research or production institute with the appropriate industry partner to develop a strategic plan optimized for success. BII is able to support all aspects of a given project, from intellectual property management to product launch. While basic infrastructure upgrades and training to meet international requirements have become a hallmark of BII, all projects start with the appropriate due diligence. This strategy allows Russian entities working with BII viable commercial alternatives for research and production through constructive and cooperative mechanisms.
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Biological Science and Biotechnology in Russia: Controlling Diseases and Enhancing Security Partnership Every effort begins with a partnership between BII and the Russian institution. Personal and institutional partnerships produce a beneficial amalgamation of ideas and practices to identify and develop innovative technology. Versatility BII has developed a variety of implementation networks, which provide a stream of expertise spanning the entire spectrum of functions, from preliminary scientific research and strategic business planning all the way to the final stages of a product launch. Industry Industry plays a central role in the BioIndustry Initiative. Western industry partners pursue fresh approaches to pipeline development or the optimization of production capacity. Success Diversification of funding and viability is the ultimate goal, whether that be the approval of an international research grant or the launch of a novel product. For further information, please see: http://www.biistate.net B. Science Centers Program Background Through the multilateral Science Centers in Moscow and Kyiv, the Department tries to guide collaborative research with former nuclear, missile, chemical, and biological institutes. Former weapons scientists in 10 former Soviet states are involved in U.S.-funded research in a wide variety of fields, including physics, environmental science, biology, informatics, chemistry, fission reaction, materials science, instrumentation, aerospace engineering, and others. Funded projects involve collaboration with U.S. entities—DOE National Labs, academic institutions, private research entities, and foundations. If a U.S.-funded project results in intellectual property (IP), then the U.S. government (USG) has exclusive licensing rights to that IP in the United States. The Science Centers Program also manages a Partner program through which other USG agencies or private entities, including commercial enterprises, may directly fund research while enjoying the management and diplomatic privileges of science center involvement.
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Biological Science and Biotechnology in Russia: Controlling Diseases and Enhancing Security C. U.S. Bio-Chem Redirect Program Background The Bio-Chem Redirect Program (BCR) is a targeted nonproliferation initiative funded by the Department of State’s Nonproliferation, Antiterrorism, Demining and Related Initiatives account. BCR engages former Soviet biological and chemical weapons scientists in transparent and sustainable civilian research projects with U.S. collaborators. The State Department provides funds to three U.S. agencies to implement the program: the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. These agencies work through the ISTC in Moscow and the Science and Technology Center in Ukraine, located in Kyiv, to implement the program. The program supports the following expenses: project salaries for Eurasian scientists possessing dual-use expertise; limited purchases of project-relevant laboratory equipment and reagents; and travel expenses for Eurasian scientists related to legitimate project needs, including scientific conferences, training, and meetings with their U.S. collaborators. The program’s primary nonproliferation mission is to redirect these Eurasian scientists to long-term sustainable activities in the civilian sphere. In addition, the program meets important U.S. research objectives in the following areas: global public health, livestock and plant health, environmental monitoring and remediation, and measures to combat biological and chemical terrorism.