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new entrants who were completing their training at the university level. Engineers often fared better financially than scientists because they could use their skills to address maintenance and other related practical problems facing the population. Also, they seldom encountered the types of regulatory issues that increasingly encumbered biomedical researchers and scientific entrepreneurs.

As shown in Figure 5.1, many Russian specialists and graduating students with skills relevant to infectious diseases have been changing their career tracks. Also, some of the best science students and young researchers have been relocating abroad. An indication of the total number of postgraduate students who have skills relevant to infectious diseases is shown in Table 5.1. The pool appears to be substantial. But the available statistics do not indicate the number of these students who are seeking shelter from the military draft or who are simply interested in the

FIGURE 5.1 Loss of doctors, scientists, engineers, and students with skills relevant to infectious diseases who gave up their specialties in Russia in 2001.

NOTE: Estimates are based on available data published by the Russian government and on discussions with Russian authors of relevant statistical analyses, specialists of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and senior U.S. visa officials in Moscow. The annual loss of professionals and students has been estimated at 5,000 from a workforce of 100,000. SOURCE: Adapted from Schweitzer, 2001. Reprinted with permission of Cameron Publications Services.



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