Thirteenth Interim Report of the Subcommittee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels

Subcommittee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels

Committee on Toxicology

Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
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Thirteenth Interim Report of the Subcommittee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels Thirteenth Interim Report of the Subcommittee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels Subcommittee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels Committee on Toxicology Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Division on Earth and Life Studies NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Thirteenth Interim Report of the Subcommittee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This project was supported by Contract Nos. W81K04-05-C-7006 and DAMD17-99-C-9049 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Army. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. International Standard Book Number: 0-309-09707-X Additional copies of this report are available from The National Academies Press 500 Fifth Street, NW Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2005 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Thirteenth Interim Report of the Subcommittee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Thirteenth Interim Report of the Subcommittee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels SUBCOMMITTEE ON ACUTE EXPOSURE GUIDELINE LEVELS DONALD E. GARDNER (Chair), Inhalation Toxicology Associates, Raleigh, NC DANIEL KREWSKI (past Chair), University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada EDWARD C. BISHOP, Parsons Corporation, Pasadena, CA JAMES V. BRUCKNER, University of Georgia, Athens RAKESH DIXIT, Merck and Company, Inc., West Point, PA JOHN DOULL (past member), University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City JEFFREY W. FISHER, University of Georgia, Athens DAVID W. GAYLOR (past member), Gaylor and Associates, LLC, Eureka Springs, AR KANNAN KRISHNAN (past member) University of Montreal, Quebec, Canada DAVID P. KELLY, Dupont Company, Newark, DE STEPHEN U. LESTER, Center for Health, Environment, and Justice, Falls Church, VA JUDITH MACGREGOR, Toxicology Consulting Services, Arnold, MD PATRICIA M. MCGINNIS (past member) Syracuse Research Corporation, Ft. Washington, PA DAVID A. MACYS, Island County Health Department, Coupeville, WA FRANZ OESCH, University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany RICHARD B. SCHLESINGER, Pace University, New York, NY CALVIN C. WILLHITE (past member), California Department of Toxic Substances Control, Berkeley FREDERIK A. DE WOLFF, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands Staff KULBIR S. BAKSHI, Project Director ALEXANDRA STUPPLE, Senior Editorial Assistant AIDA C. NEEL, Program Associate Sponsor U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE

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Thirteenth Interim Report of the Subcommittee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels COMMITTEE ON TOXICOLOGY WILLIAM E. HALPERIN (Chair), New Jersey Medical School, Newark LAWRENCE S. BETTS, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk EDWARD C. BISHOP, Parsons Corporation, Pasadena, CA JAMES V. BRUCKNER, University of Georgia, Athens GARY P. CARLSON, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN JANICE E. CHAMBERS, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State MARION EHRICH, College of Veterinary Medicine, Blacksburg, VA SIDNEY GREEN, Howard University, Washington, DC MERYL KAROL, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA JAMES MCDOUGAL, Wright State University School of Medicine, Dayton, OH ROGER MCINTOSH, Science Applications International Corporation, Abingdon, MD GERALD N. WOGAN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Staff KULBIR S. BAKSHI, Program Director EILEEN N. ABT, Senior Program Officer for Risk Analysis SUSAN N. J. MARTEL, Senior Program Officer ELLEN K. MANTUS, Senior Program Officer ALEXANDRA STUPPLE, Senior Editorial Assistant AIDA NEEL, Program Associate TAMARA DAWSON, Program Assistant SAM BARDLEY, Librarian

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Thirteenth Interim Report of the Subcommittee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY1 Members JONATHAN M. SAMET (Chair), Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD RAMON ALVAREZ, Environmental Defense, Austin, TX THOMAS BURKE, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD JUDITH C. CHOW, Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV COSTEL D. DENSON, University of Delaware, Newark E. DONALD ELLIOTT, Wilkie, Farr & Gallagher, LLP, Washington, DC CHRISTOPHER B. FIELD, Carnegie Institute of Washington, Stanford, CA SHERRI W. GOODMAN, Center for Naval Analyses Corporation, Alexandria, VA JUDITH A. GRAHAM, American Chemistry Council, Arlington, VA DANIEL S. GREENBAUM, Health Effects Institute, Cambridge, MA ROBERT HUGGETT, Michigan State University, East Lansing BARRY L. JOHNSON, Emory University, Atlanta, GA JAMES H. JOHNSON, Howard University, Washington, DC JUDITH L. MEYER, University of Georgia, Athens PATRICK Y. O’BRIEN, ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Company, Richmond, CA DOROTHY E. PATTON, International Life Sciences Institute, Washington, DC STEWARD T.A. PICKETT, Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, NY JOSEPH V. RODRICKS, ENVIRON Corporation, Arlington, VA ARMISTEAD G. RUSSELL, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta MITCHELL J. SMALL, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA LISA SPEER, Natural Resources Defense Council, New York, NY KIMBERLY M. THOMPSON, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA G. DAVID TILMAN, University of Minnesota, St. Paul CHRIS G. WHIPPLE, ENVIRON Corporation, Emeryville, CA LAUREN A. ZEISE, California Environmental Protection Agency, Oakland Senior Staff JAMES J. REISA, Director DAVID J. POLICANSKY, Scholar RAYMOND A. WASSEL, Senior Program Officer for Environmental Sciences and Engineering KULBIR BAKSHI, Senior Program Officer for Toxicology EILEEN N. ABT, Senior Program Officer for Risk Analysis K. JOHN HOLMES, Senior Program Officer SUSAN N.J. MARTEL, Senior Program Officer SUZANNE VAN DRUNICK, Senior Program Officer ELLEN K. MANTUS, Senior Program Officer RUTH E. CROSSGROVE, Senior Editor 1   This study was planned, overseen, and supported by the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology.

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Thirteenth Interim Report of the Subcommittee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels Preface Extremely hazardous substances (EHSs)1 can be released accidentally as a result of chemical spills, industrial explosions, fires, or accidents involving railroad cars or trucks transporting EHSs, or intentionally through terrorist activities. However, it is also feasible that these substances can also be released by improper storage and/or handling. Workers and residents in communities surrounding industrial facilities where EHSs are manufactured, used, or stored and in communities along the nation’s railways and highways are potentially at risk of being exposed to airborne EHSs during accidental and intentional releases. Pursuant to the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has identified approximately 400 EHSs on the basis of acute lethality data in rodents. The National Advisory Committee (NAC) on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances has developed acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) for approximately 120 EHSs to date. In 1998, EPA and the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) requested that the National Research Council (NRC) independently review the AEGLs developed by the NAC. In response to that request, the NRC organized within its Committee on Toxicology the Subcommittee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels. The NAC’s Standing Operating Procedures for Developing AEGLs for Airborne Chemicals was reviewed by the subcommittee and published in May 2001. That report provides step-by-step guidance for the derivation of AEGLs for hazardous chemicals. In December 2000, the subcommittee’s first report on specific chemicals, Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals, Volume 1, was published by the NRC; volumes 2, 3, and 4 in that series were published in 2002, 2003, and 2004 respectively. The subcommittee meets two times each calendar year. At those meetings, the subcommittee hears presentations from the NAC staff and its contractor—the Oak Ridge National Laboratory—on draft AEGL documents. At some meetings, the subcommittee also hears presentations from NAC’s collaborators from other countries, such as Germany. The subcommittee provides comments and recommendations on those documents to NAC in its interim reports, and the NAC uses those comments to make revisions. The revised reports are presented by the NAC to the subcommittee at subsequent meetings until the subcommittee concurs with the final draft documents. The revised reports are then published as appendices in the subcommittee’s reports. The present report is the subcommittee’s thirteenth interim report. It summarizes the subcommittee’s conclusions and recommendations for improving NAC’s AEGL documents for 10 chemicals: 1, 4-dioxane; chloroform; carbon tetrachloride; sulfur dioxide; 1,-2 dichloroethylene; monochloroacetic acid; carbon monoxide; fluorine; methanol; and phenol. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to 1   As defined pursuant to the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986.

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Thirteenth Interim Report of the Subcommittee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Deepak K. Bhalla (Wayne State University), David W. Gaylor (Gaylor and Associates, LLC), and Sam Kacew (University of Ottawa). Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by: Sidney Green, Jr. (Howard University). Appointed by the NRC, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. The subcommittee gratefully acknowledges the valuable assistance provided by the following people: Susan Martel (Program Officer, NRC Committee on Toxicology), Ernest Falke, Iris Camacho, and Paul Tobin (all from EPA); Cheryl Bast and Robert Young (both from Oak Ridge National Laboratory); and Peter Griem of Germany. Aida Neel was the program associate and Alexandra Stupple was the editor. We are grateful to James J. Reisa, director of the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, for his helpful guidance. The subcommittee particularly acknowledges Kulbir Bakshi, project director for the subcommittee, for bringing the report to completion. Finally, we would like to thank all members of the subcommittee for their expertise and dedicated effort throughout the development of this report. Donald E. Gardner, Chair, Subcommittee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels William E. Halperin, Chair Committee on Toxicology